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Buildings represent the infrastructure and development of a province. Investing ducats into buildings can give steady returns over the decades and centuries to come.

Building slots[edit]

Adding a new building requires one free building slot. Some buildings can be upgraded as technology advances. These upgraded buildings don't require an additional slot, and the existing building can be upgraded on the same slot. The maximum number of building slots a city can have is 12, although there are only 11 possible categories of buildings[1].

The number of slots a province provides is mostly influenced by terrain and total development of the province[2]:

\text{Number of Buildings} = \text{ City } + \text{ Core } + \text{ Terrain } + \text{ Climate } + \text{ University } +\, \lfloor 0.1\cdot \text{ Development } \rfloor

Possible number of buildings.png Conditions
+2 Base
+1 Terrain is drylands
+1 Terrain is farmlands
+1 Terrain is grasslands
+1 Has a Latin university.png university
+1 Per 10 Development.png development in province, rounded down.
-1 Climate is Arctic Arctic
-2 Is not a core

Note: The University can be thought of as not occupying a slot. In case there are no available slots the University will in fact occupy the future slot it is supposed to provide (prior to Patch 1.15 the player would have had to remove a building, build the University, and then rebuild the original building).

Example: If Paris is a city, a core of Flag of France France, has farmlands terrain, a temperate climate and Development.png 32 development, then:

\text{Number of Buildings} = 2\, +\, 0\, +\, 1\, +\, 0\, +\, \lfloor 0.1\cdot 32 \rfloor = 6 \text{ Buildings}


Buildings are built in provinces at the cost of Gold Icon.png ducats. There are three types of building:

Normal buildings

These represent common buildings that the player can construct in every province. Buildings are divided into seven categories: government, army, navy, production, trade, defense and taxation.

Each category contains various amounts of buildings. Most of the buildings have an advanced version, but some (for example University) take one slot and can't be replaced by something better. It's not necessary to build a basic building before constructing the more advanced version, although the cost of the basic building will be deducted from the cost of the advanced one.


Manufactories are proto-industrial buildings in that their unique function is the increased production of a specific class of trade good. For example, the weapons manufactory is only constructable on provinces that produce iron or copper. For a list, see below. Each manufactory is essentially the same as any other, except that they are unlocked at different levels and categories of technology.

Native buildings

Native American nations get a unique set of buildings that completely replace the usual buildings as long as they have the Tribal Council government. All buildings can be built without technological requirements unlike normal buildings and their effects are different from the normal buildings. Any native buildings built will be lost when the government is reformed.


All buildings cost Time Icon.png time and Gold Icon.png ducats to build. The cost of a building is reduced if a building that precedes it (meaning, it is an upgrade) is already built in the province, but the time constraint is not affected.

Construction time can be modified by trade goods (iron).

Construction cost is modified by the following:

Construction cost.png Conditions
−20% with the Native adm ideas.png native administrative idea “Migrative Traditions”
−15% with Jacobins Jacobins faction in power as Government republic.png Revolutionary Republic
−10% with Ganga.png Ganga as personal deity (for Hinduism Hindu nations)
−10% with Norse Deity Snotra Snotra as personal deity (for Norse.png Norse nations)
−10% with China bureaucrat.png bureaucrats faction in power as Government monarchy.png Celestial Empire
−10% with Guilds guilds faction in power as Government republic.png Merchant republic
−10% with a ruler with the “Architectural Visionary” personality
−5% with the imperial reform “Call for Reichsreform” (for Imperial authority.png HRE members)
−5% during Parliament.png parliament issue “Appropriate Land for the State”
−5% after embracing the Renaissance institution
+1% for each percentage point of Inflation reduction.png inflation
+10% with a ruler with the “Obsessive Perfectionist” personality

Ideas and policies:

Construction cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Portuguese idea 5: Royal Absolutism
  • Tverian idea 4: Tverian Architects
  • Aristocratic-Expansion: Manueline Architecture
  • Ajuuraan traditions
  • Chachapoyan traditions
  • Korean traditions
  • Nanbu traditions
  • Nizhny Novgorod traditions
  • Shiba traditions
  • Sligonian traditions
  • Utsunomiya traditions
  • Economic idea 2: Organized Construction
  • Anatolian idea 6: Anatolian Architecture
  • Armenian idea 2: Land Reclamation
  • Butua idea 1: Legacy of Zimbabwe
  • Creek idea 1: Moundbuilders Legacy
  • Cherokee idea 1: Moundbuilders Legacy
  • Chickasaw idea 1: Moundbuilders Legacy
  • Chimu idea 3: Split Inheritance
  • Desmondian idea 1: The Land of Castles
  • Finnish idea 4: Settle Middle Finland
  • Georgian idea 3: Restoration of Fortresses and Churches
  • Granada idea 5: Alhambra
  • Hausan idea 6: Sarkin Bayi
  • Incan idea 5: Mit'a System
  • Ito idea 7: Development of Forestry
  • Ladakh idea 4: Construction of Great Monasteries
  • Mesoamerican idea 6: Pyramid Architecture
  • Mexican idea 1: Rebuilding Mexico
  • Polotskian idea 7: Forest of Europe
  • Pueblo idea 2: Adobe Architecture
  • Rostov idea 5: Rostov Architecture
  • Silesian idea 3: German Settlers
  • Transylvanian idea 3: Transylvanian Saxons
  • Client State ambition
  • Orleanaise ambition

Decisions and events:

Construction cost.png Event modifier Trigger Time Icon.png Duration
−20% Golden Age Transylvania Flag of Transylvania Transylvania event (only with Art of War.png Art of War enabled): “Golden Age of Transylvania for 15 years
−20% Fernandino Construction Flag of Tuscany Tuscany event: “The Construction Projects of Fernando I”
Option: ‘Implement the projects in full.’ or ‘Expand the road network and charge high tolls.’
for 10 years
−10% Elizabeth Wilbraham Flag of England England / Flag of Great Britain Great Britain event: “Elizabeth Wilbraham
Option: ‘Her accomplishments will not go unnoticed.’
for 20 years
−10% Hanseatic Economic Reform Flag of Lübeck Lübeck event: “Tagfahrt
Option: ‘Reform the economy’
until ruler changes
−10% Mimar Sinan Flag of Ottomans Ottomans event: “Mimar Sinan's Great Constructions
Option: ‘Appoint him royal architect’
until ruler changes
−10% Srishti Hinduism Hindu event: “Srishti: Creation until ruler changes
−5% Construction Wages Subject colony icon.png Colonial nation event (only with Conquest of Paradise.png Conquest of Paradise enabled): “Wage Laws for Builders
Option: ‘Vote yes, it's a sound idea’
for 3 years
+10% Mint Money Revolution.png Revolution disaster event: “The Road to Bankruptcy
Option: ‘Mint more money’
until end of disaster
+20% Berliner Unwille stopped Flag of Brandenburg Brandenburg event: “Berliner Unwille
Option: ‘Listen to the people’
until ruler changes

List of normal buildings[edit]


All normal buildings have a base construction time of Time Icon.png 12 months and provide various benefits when completed.

Category Tech Normal buildings (tech required)
Government Administrative power.png
Latin courthouse.png
Courthouse (8)

  • Local autonomy.png−0.1 Local autonomy
  • State maintenance.png−25% State maintenance
  • Expenses.png 100 Ducats
Latin town hall.png
Town hall (22)
Upgrades Courthouse

  • Local autonomy.png−0.2 Local autonomy
  • State maintenance.png−50% State maintenance
  • Expenses.png 200 Ducats
Latin university.png
University (17)

  • Local development cost−20% Local development cost
  • Possible number of buildings.png+1 Building slot
  • Expenses.png 300 Ducats
Production Administrative power.png
Latin workshop.png
Workshop (6)

  • Local production efficiency.png+50% Local production efficiency
  • Expenses.png 100 Ducats
Latin counting house.png
Counting house (24)
Upgrades Workshop

  • Local production efficiency.png+100% Local production efficiency
  • Expenses.png 400 Ducats
Taxation Administrative power.png
Latin temple.png
Temple (4)

  • Local tax modifier.png+40% Local tax modifier
  • Expenses.png 100 Ducats
Latin cathedral.png
Cathedral (19)
Upgrades Temple

  • Local tax modifier.png+60% Local tax modifier
  • Local missionary strength.png+3% Local missionary strength
  • Expenses.png 300 Ducats
Navy Diplomatic power.png
Latin shipyard.png
Shipyard (8)

  • Naval forcelimit.png+2 Naval force limit
  • Local shipbuilding time.png−25% Local shipbuilding time
  • Local ship repair.png+25% Local ship repair
  • Expenses.png 100 Ducats
Latin grand shipyard.png
Grand shipyard (24)
Upgrades Shipyard

  • Naval forcelimit.png+4 Naval force limit
  • Local shipbuilding time.png−50% Local shipbuilding time
  • Local ship repair.png+50% Local ship repair
  • Expenses.png 300 Ducats
Latin dock.png
Dock (6)

  • Local sailors modifier.png+50% Local sailors
  • Expenses.png 100 Ducats
Latin drydock.png
Drydock (19)
Upgrades Dock

  • Local sailors modifier.png+100% Local sailors
  • Expenses.png 300 Ducats
Trade Diplomatic power.png
Latin marketplace.png
Marketplace (4)

  • Local trade power.png+50% Local trade power
  • Expenses.png 100 Ducats
Latin trade depot.png
Trade depot (17)
Upgrades Marketplace

  • Local trade power.png+100% Local trade power
  • Expenses.png 300 Ducats
Latin stock exchange.png
Stock exchange (22)
Upgrades Trade depot

  • Local trade power.png+125% Local trade power
  • Expenses.png 400 Ducats
Army Military power.png
Latin barracks.png
Barracks (6)

  • Local manpower modifier.png+50% Local manpower modifier
  • Expenses.png 100 Ducats
Latin training fields.png
Training fields (16)
Upgrades Barracks

  • Local manpower modifier.png+100% Local manpower modifier
  • Expenses.png 300 Ducats
Latin regimental camp.png
Regimental camp (8)

  • Land forcelimit.png+1 Land force limit
  • Expenses.png 200 Ducats
Latin conscription center.png
Conscription center (22)
Upgrades Regimental camp

  • Land forcelimit.png+2 Land force limit
  • Expenses.png 400 Ducats


Main article: Land warfare#forts

The Defense type building (fort) has a base construction time of Time Icon.png 30 months. Forts resist enemy occupation and must be sieged down. They also hinder enemy movement in the surrounding provinces during war, and reduce devastation in neighboring provinces.

All forts require an ongoing monthly upkeep of Fort maintenance.png Fort maintenance which becomes higher depending on the fort's level. It is recommended to mothball forts during peace times in order to get Fort maintenance.png-50% Fort maintenance (can be done on a per fort basis).

Category Tech Normal buildings (tech required)
Defense Military power.png
Latin fort01.png
Castle (1)

  • Fort level.png+2 Fort level
  • Expenses.png 200 Ducats
  • Fort maintenance.png-1 / month Fort maintenance
Latin fort02.png
Bastion (14)
Upgrades Castle

  • Fort level.png+4 Fort level
  • Expenses.png 400 Ducats
  • Fort maintenance.png-2 / month Fort maintenance
Latin fort03.png
Star fort (19)
Upgrades Bastion

  • Fort level.png+6 Fort level
  • Expenses.png 600 Ducats
  • Fort maintenance.png-3 / month Fort maintenance
Latin fort04.png
Fortress (24)
Upgrades Star fort

  • Fort level.png+8 Fort level
  • Expenses.png 800 Ducats
  • Fort maintenance.png-4 / month Fort maintenance


All manufactories cost Expenses.png 500 ducats, have a base construction time of Time Icon.png 60 months and provide Local goods produced +1 local goods produced. A manufactory can only be built in a province which has its associated trade goods present.

Manufactory Tech Level Required Trade good
Textile manufactory.png Textile Manufactory Administrative tech.png 11 Cloth.png Cloth, Dyes.png Dyes, Silk.png Silk, Wool.png Wool
Naval equipment.png Naval Equipment Manufactory Diplomatic tech.png 11 Fish.png Fish, Naval supplies.png Naval Supplies, Salt.png Salt
Weapons manufactory.png Weapons Manufactory Military tech.png 11 Copper.png Copper, Iron.png Iron
Plantations.png Plantations Administrative tech.png 14 Cocoa.png Cocoa, Coffee.png Coffee, Cotton.png Cotton, Grain.png Grain, Sugar.png Sugar, Tobacco.png Tobacco
Trade Company Trade Station Diplomatic tech.png 14 Chinaware.png Chinaware, Fur.png Fur, Ivory.png Ivory, Slaves.png Slaves, Spices.png Spices, Tea.png Tea, Tropical Wood.png Tropical Wood, Wine.png Wine

List of native buildings[edit]

All native buildings cost 50 Gold Icon.png ducats and have a base construction time of Time Icon.png 12 months. It is only possible to build one of each unique building per nation. All native buildings are lost after reforming the government.

Normal native buildings[edit]

Building Effect
Native earthwork.png Earthwork Local defensiveness.png+25% Local defensiveness
Native great trail.png Great Trail Local manpower modifier.png+50% Local manpower modifier
Native irrigation.png Irrigation Local tax modifier.png+50% Local tax modifier
Native palisade.png Palisades
  • Fort level.png+1 Fort Level
  • Fort maintenance.png-0.5 / month Fort maintenance
Native storehouse.png Storehouse Local production efficiency.png+50% Local production efficiency
Native three sisters field.png Three-Sisters Field Local goods produced modifier+50% Local goods produced

Unique native buildings[edit]

Building Effect
Native ceremonial fire pit.png Ceremonial Fire Pit Advisor cost.png-50% Advisor cost
Native fortified house.png Fortified House Land forcelimit.png+10 Land force limit
Native longhouse.png Longhouse Tax income.png+1 Tax income
Native sweat lodge.png Sweat Lodge Diplomatic reputation.png+1 Diplomatic reputation

Building strategy[edit]

General considerations[edit]

There are some general rules of thumb that should be taken into heart when investing in buildings:

  • Money should be invested in buildings only if it isn't needed in a more important area.
  • It's usually better to pay off loans before making buildings. Loans have a base interest rate of 4% while the return on investment of money-making buildings is typically 1-3%. Buildings in very highly developed provinces or in countries with interest rate reduction ideas may be an exception.
  • The time needed to generate a profit should be noted; some provinces may be too poor to ever generate a profit in the remaining time-frame.[3]
  • When considering a large building spree it might be advisable to invest in the Economic idea group.png Economic idea group and couple it with policies to reduce the building costs.
  • It's good to remember that besides Local autonomy.png local autonomy, province income can also be affected by the province's Culture icon.png culture and religion (if different than the state religion).

Building prioritization[edit]

Buildings' positioning can have great effect on return of investment. It is thus recommended to build the following building types in the appropriate provinces:

  • Most buildings provide a percentile bonus. As such, it's best to prioritize building them in state provinces with high Development.png development value and with no or extremely low Local autonomy.png local autonomy. e.g., trade buildings in provinces with modifiers benefiting Local trade power.png local trade power.
  • Buildings providing a flat bonus are best built in territorial provinces as they won't be affected from the high autonomy or in state provinces with low Development.png development values.
  • While less beneficial to all types of development, coupling a building with the right estate can boost a single type of development very high (estates negate local autonomy on some modifiers depending on the estate).
  • Manufactories increase Local goods produced local goods produced, which in turn also increase both the province Trade value modifier.png trade value and its production income. In addition, coupling them with production buildings in state provinces with high value trade goods will generate high production income.
  • Manufactories are not affected by autonomy, culture, and religion as other buildings. Thus, they can be built even in high autonomy provinces. While the generated production income may not be at its fullest, they can still return the investment when also taking into account the generated Tradeview income.png trade income.
  • Prioritize building forts in provinces with mountainous terrain (or similar) or those with low Supply limit.png supply limit to couple them with the Local defensiveness.png local defensiveness and high Attrition attrition bonuses. If possible, they should be built mostly in border provinces and mothballed until needed. With Patch 1.18, besieging armies take attacker penalties from terrain even when defending, making forts on mountains and other defensive terrain especially useful as long as they can be relieved before falling to an enemy force.


Considering that buildings cost money, their cost-benefit ratio should be considered. Thus, an important step is to know when not to invest in a building type:

  • Trade buildings should be avoided in trade nodes dominated by the nation.
  • Army/Navy buildings should be avoided if the nation maintains large forces and there are no nations of similar or stronger power.
  • Due to forts' initial high cost and ongoing Fort maintenance.png fort maintenance, it's best to avoid building them in the inner provinces of the nation where they are far from enemy borders and forces. If the area is prone to rebellions, several low level forts might be more successful in slowing the rebels down until other forces arrive.
  • If playing as a native tribe and planning to migrate, it is not advisable to build buildings unless necessary for immediate survival, as buildings are destroyed upon migration.


  1. Specified in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua.
  2. Specified in /Europa Universalis IV/map/terrain.txt and /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt respectively.
  3. Forum, ROI on Buildings (spreadsheet), 2017-02-05
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