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A vassal is a semi-independent nation that owes allegiance to a country, often much more powerful than the vassal. The vassal offers regular financial tribute and military assistance, and in return receives protection.

Creating a vassal[edit]

There are several different ways to vassalize a nation. Countries can become vassals in the terms of a Peace Treaty, by diplomatic offer, or upon receiving autonomy from a larger country, either as a normal nation or as a Client state. The Emperor can also vassalize members of the Holy Roman Empire by passing the penultimate Imperial Reform.

It is not possible to create a vassal if the differences in tech group is too big: a difference in technology cost of 50% or larger will require the relation to be a protectorate rather than a vassal, unless the target is in the Nomad tech group; e.g. it is possible for a Western nation (100%) to vassalize Eastern (120%), Ottoman (125%), Muslim (140%) groups as well as other Western nations, but not Indian (150%) and lower groups. Since this is relative, Eastern nations can vassalize Indian, Chinese and Sub-Saharan (160%), but not Mesoamerican (250%) and below.

Release a nation[edit]

A nation may release another nation whose lands it controls while it is at peace. This is something that may be desirable, for example, after gaining provinces in a peace that can't be cored or sold. The method of releasing a nation is as follows:

  1. Bring up the Diplomacy menu. If the player's country is not shown, click on View Own Country in the bottom right of the menu.
  2. In the bottom right hand corner of the menu that pops up, there is a button called Create Vassals.
  3. If the button is gray and not clickable then either there are no nations to release or the player is at war.
  4. Click the Create Vassals button and choose the nation to release as a vassal. Nations are eligible for release when the following conditions are satisfied:
    • Target nation does not currently exist
    • Releasing nation controls provinces that have the target nation's cores and a culture in the same group as their primary culture.

The released vassal will take the master country's religion, but only if the religion in the vassal's capital is of a different religious group. A same-religious-group capital will release as a vassal with its own capital's religion. The vassal may convert some provinces using its missionaries, leaving the suzerain's missionaries free.

Its tech group will be whatever that country had when it existed, although its initial tech levels will match its master, e.g. Creek will always release as New World Tech Group, Creek culture, its master's religion and its master's tech levels.

If the released nation's core provinces include the releasing country's capital, the capital will not be released, even if it is in the list of provinces to be released.

Since patch 1.2, when releasing a nation into vassalage, a player may now switch to playing as that vassal. As of patch 1.9 this feature also works in ironman mode, though it will disable most Achievements.

Kingdom of Jerusalem[edit]

A special case for releasing a country as a vassal is the Kingdom of Jerusalem, that can be released as a vassal through a decision by any Catholic ruler, except by The Knights or Cyprus who will instead remain in the control of the Kingdom. The releasing nation gains +25 prestige Prestige.png, and Jerusalem inherits the culture of the releasing nation.

Create a client state[edit]

Main article: Client state

A country with at least diplomatic technology 23 can create client states. They function identically to other vassals, but their provinces, government form, name, color and coat-of-arms can be customized by the player. They also have slightly less Liberty Desire than other vassals, and a unique group of Ideas shared by all client states. A country can have a maximum of 10 client states.

Create a march[edit]

Main article: March

A suzerain can also change a vassal (including a client state) into a march: special militaristic kind of vassal.

Force vassalization (military)[edit]

A nation can be force vassalized as part of a peace treaty. In the negotiations screen, there is an option for "Become Vassal" under the menu "Treaties" which should be the farthest right menu button on the screen. When force vassalizing a nation, the warscore needed is determined by the total development of all their provinces. The base warscore cost per point of development is 1.[1] Sometimes, the total development is too high to vassalize the target nation. The normal maximum is a total development of 100. However, certain missions/cb's can lower the warscore cost by a % (example: Subjugation reduces cost by 50%).

Generally only countries of 4 or fewer provinces, or poorer provinces can be vassalized via war. The maximum war score is 100% and a rich province typically costs about 25% war score. A good way to reduce a country's size is to force them to return cores and release countries, as these do not result in overextension or Aggressive Expansion for the annexing country. However, pagan countries can be annexed when fully occupied regardless of war score.

The benefits to the military victor of choosing vassalization instead of annexation are:

  • No Overextension penalty.
  • Using diplomatic points instead of administrative points to annex vassalized provinces.
  • The ability to feed a vassal, to conquer land without using one's own admin power, as well as to expand whilst having a lot of overextension.

The downsides to the military victor of choosing vassalization instead of annexation are:

  • The vassal occupies a diplomatic relation slot, reducing the number of allies possible (but vassals are more dependable than allies).
  • The direct benefits of those provinces to the overlord are smaller than if they belonged to the overlord (less tax, production, forcelimits, trade power, and the overlord can't build buildings). (However, the overlord and vassal combined are stronger than either one alone.)
  • Longer time until the land is part of the victor's country. There is a waiting period of 10 years in addition to the time that it takes to diplo-annex the vassal.
  • Once annexed the Local Autonomy of every province will be raised to 75%, instead of 50% if taken in war without a claim
  • Once annexed, the country gains a -3 malus to its diplomatic reputation. This matters in regards to being elected as the emperor, diplo-vassalizing countries and diplo-annexing ones, as well as a host of other diplomatic actions. Without help from advisors, ideas, or events, annexing another vassal will be very slow or impossible until this malus expires.

Offer vassalization (diplomatic)[edit]

In order to offer vassalization to a nation, these requirements must be met:

  • Have a military alliance with the target nation.
  • Have a relation of 190+.
  • The target country must be at peace.
  • The country must have a total development <= 100 (patch 1.12 or later) [2]

Other factors such as diplomatic reputation, relative size of military and relative base tax affect whether the nation will accept the offer of vassalisation.

  • +20 to -20 from trust/distrust
  • +30 to -90 from base tax (modifier is referred to as economic base in-game). Determined by 60*(base tax+production)/(target's base tax+target's production)^2 - 90, where base tax and production are the total province base tax and production of the country without any buildings or modifiers. In addition, the base tax of all current vassals, along with tax income modifiers, also add to the base tax of the nation offering the vassalization.
  • +20 to -40 from relative size of military
  • +10 Friendly or Threatened attitude
  • +10 per difference in Government Rank
  • +10 Having a royal marriage
  • +3 per point of Diplomatic Reputation (Rounded down to nearest whole number)
  • -1000 if not a strategic interest
  • -1000 has more than 100 development
  • -1000 has vassals of their own
  • -1000 Elector of Holy Roman Empire
  • -1000 the Papal State
  • -100 Hostile or Outraged attitude
  • -30 Member of Holy Roman Empire for foreigners
  • -30 if either country is a Merchant Republic
  • -20 Member of Holy Roman Empire for another member
  • -20 if not same religious group
  • -20 Neutral attitude
  • -10 Different religions within the same religious group
  • -0.5 per distance
  • [Other factors?]

Hover over the cross or check-mark in the "offer vassalization" button to see whether the nation would accept an offer or not.

Break vassalization[edit]

  • Through a peace deal: when suzerain loses a war.
  • Through diplomacy: a suzerain can chose to release its vassal for a cost of -25 prestige and -200 vassal's opinion modifier.

Benefits of vassals[edit]

Vassals are essentially puppets of their suzerain, or overlord country. They cannot declare war or enter royal marriages, except with their overlord. They always join their suzerain's wars, and cannot negotiate separate peace treaties. They give 10% of their tax to the suzerain, increased by +25% by the feudal and elective monarchy and archduchy governments, by +33% by the iqta government and following other modifiers:

Income from vassals.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies

  • Offensive-Administration: Vassal Taxation Policy

  • Kanem Bornuan traditions
  • Mesoamerican traditions
  • Timurid traditions
  • Influence idea 1: Tribute System
  • Bosnian idea 5: Land of Princes
  • Ayutthayan ambitions
  • Influence-Economic: Vassal Obligations Act
  • Influence-Expansion: Overseas Dominions
  • Influence-Quality: The Integrated Administration Act

  • Georgian idea 4: Georgian Protectorates
  • Malian idea 1: Restore Malian Suzerainty

  • French idea 1: French Language in All Courts
  • Orleanaise idea 6: French Language in All Courts

  • Aristocratic idea 2: Local Nobility

Vassals increase the suzerain's land force limit by 25% of their own, but not naval force limit. This contribution can be increased by the following ideas and policies:

Vassal forcelimit bonus.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies

  • Influence-Offensive: Unified Army Command

  • Influence idea 7: Marcher Lords
  • Bosnian idea 5: Land of Princes
  • Influence-Aristocratic: Autonomous Estates
  • Influence-Economic: Vassal Obligations Act

The suzerain also receives military access and the ability to dock its boats in the vassal's ports, but not fleet basing rights. If the vassal is an elector in the Holy Roman Empire, its suzerain gets a +50 point bonus to the vassal's electoral vote opinion and a -50 point malus (stacking for each vassal) to the opinions of non-controlled electors.

Vassals may try to break free by declaring war on their overlord. They may also ask other nations to support their independence. Nations supporting independence are automatically called into the independence war, and act as temporary allies for the duration of the war. Other countries may offer support for independence without being asked, although vassals that like their overlord will never accept.

After ten years vassals can be annexed by their suzerain, which gets cores on all provinces that the vassal considers cores. This makes vassalization a good way to expand without spending administrative points, or in some cases even without having to wage war.

Liberty desire[edit]

Main article: Subject nation#Liberty desire

Since patch 1.10 (El Dorado), vassals (including Marches) have a liberty desire similar to that of a colonial nation, except unaffected by tariffs. Like colonial nations, vassals with a liberty desire less than 50% will remain in the 'Loyal' attitude, while vassals with a liberty desire above 50% will become 'Disloyal'.

Nations who are 'Historic Rivals' will have a base liberty desire of 50% and as such make poor vassals since to diplo-annex them there needs to be less than 50% liberty desire.

Disloyal vassals may:

  • Refuse to send troops to a war waged by the liege.
  • Seek independence support and accept independence support from other countries.
  • Forge alliances with other disloyal vassals.
  • Declare a war of independence (which they will once they believe they have a chance based on the relative military powers of them and their allies versus their liege).

Many factors affect liberty desire, including relative military strength, relations, royal marriages and trust.

Because vassals taken from wars have poor opinions and distrust of their new liege, it is important to raise the vassal's opinion as much as possible before the truce from the war expires. When suing for peace, increasing the warscore cost of the demands will also increase the truce period, granting more time to improve vassal's opinions, build trust through wars, and allow bad opinion modifiers to decay.

Subject interaction[edit]

As of 1.12, it is now possible to interact with a vassal. This is done through the Subject Interaction section of the Subject Menu.

  1. Placate Local Rulers: Placates the local rulers, changing their Liberty Desire by -10% at the cost of -20 Prestige.
  2. Enable Embargo Rivals: This will cause the player's subjects to embargo their rivals at the cost of +5% Liberty Desire
  3. Place Relative on the Throne: places a member of the suzerain's dynasty on their throne. Changes Liberty Desire by +10%. Subject must have a regency.
  4. Enforce Religion: Forces them to change their religion to that of their overlord, changing liberty desire by +50%. They must be in the same religious group.
  5. Enable Scutage: Forces vassals to pay an additional +50% of their income to their overlord as scutage, but they will no longer be called to wars. Disabling scutage is possible, but increases Liberty Desire by 10%. Note that disabling scutage will not call vassals into wars that have already started.


A vassal that has at least one province within coring range of its suzerain can potentially be annexed as the result of a diplomatic action. After 10 years and if the vassal has +190 relations with the suzerain and less than 50% liberty desire, the suzerain can take the diplomatic action Annex Vassal to start the process of incorporating the vassal's provinces into the suzerain country. The original date on which the vassal was acquired can be found in the diplomacy tab of the vassal on the tooltip for the vassalage icon Vassalage.png. Once annexation begins, relations may drop without any effect.

Annexing occupies a diplomat until complete. The base cost of annexing a vassal is 8 Diplomatic power.png diplomatic points per development reduced by some ideas and policies:

Diplomatic annexation cost Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies

  • Influence idea 3: Integrated Elites

  • Influence-Administrative: Vassal Integration Act

  • Austrian idea 1: Imperial Ambitions
  • Naxian ambitions

  • French idea 1: French Language in All Courts
  • Orleanaise idea 6: French Language in All Courts
  • Plutocratic-Influence: Full Sovereignty Act

Even with a −100% modifier to annexation cost, annexation will still cost a minimum of 12.5% of the full annexation cost.

Hostile Core Creation cost of your Vassal increases your required diplomatic points.

Spent at a rate determined by

  • +2 base
  • +1 if same culture as suzerain
  • +1 if same religion as suzerain
  • +1 or -1 for each point of suzerain's diplomatic reputation.

If the total is 0 or negative, annexing will pause, but not go backwards.

When all the diplo points are spent, annexation finishes and the suzerain will see the following effects:

  • "Annexed Vassals" national modifier for 10 years giving -3 Diplomatic reputation.png diplomatic reputation.
  • Relations with other vassals -30. Stacks. Does not apply to marches.
  • Relations with other HRE members -25, if the vassal was in the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Control of all the vassal's provinces, army, and navy. This may put the suzerain well over its force limit.
  • Cores on all the provinces that the vassal had cores on.
  • All of the former vassal's provinces not a core of the suzerain before integration will have 60% Local autonomy.png local autonomy (or their previous autonomy level, if above).

Diplomatic annexation strategy[edit]

Due to the administrative point cost and time of coring conquered provinces, especially for large countries, diplomatic annexation is an interesting alternative to conquer large swathes of the world: when a vassal is annexed, all of the vassal's core provinces become cores of the annexing country. Annexation also doesn't incur aggressive expansion relations penalties.


  • Better Relations Over Time is the most important bonus, as it makes Aggressive Expansion decay faster. Hiring a Diplomat increases this modifier.
  • Static modifiers include:
    • Royal Marriage +25
    • Alliance +50
    • Enemy of my Enemy (have the same rival as them) stacking 1/year up to +20
    • Same religion +10
    • Guarantee by promising to defend against aggressors +10
    • Military Access by giving target nation military access +10
    • Imperial Grace +40 (the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire can spend imperial authority to increase relations with a country).
  • Decaying modifiers include:
    • Gift by giving money to the target country +1 up to +25 (60 months)
    • Honored Alliance by responding to a request for military aid +10 (decays/year)
    • Fought to the End by not negotiating a separate peace in an alliance war +20 (decays/year).
    • Defending the vassal territory from an army +10 (decays/year)
    • Liberating vassal territory from an occupation +25 (decays/year). Both defending and liberating provinces work against rebels.
    • Giving war subsidies, up to +15. Once cancelled, relations boon is gone.

Choosing a vassal[edit]

A good candidate for diplomatic annexation has the following:

  • Lots of cores: this makes feeding the vassal easier.
  • Lots of unowned cores or claims: wage war with other nations and force them to return cores to the vassal in a peace deal. Be aware that province defections temporarily raise liberty desire and a vassal with over 100 development may be difficult to diplomatically annex.
  • Small province base tax: a vassal must be economically much smaller before it can be diplomatically annexed.
  • Not a merchant republic; they have a malus for accepting vassalization.
  • No Hostile core creation modifier
  • The same religion and different culture than their overlord. They can convert lands, and may use same-culture provinces more efficiently than an nation of a different culture.

Feeding a vassal[edit]

It is sometimes advantageous to transfer provinces to a vassal. This is called "feeding" the vassal. Because each vassal takes up a diplomatic relations slot, as well as a Diplomat during the actual annexation process, it can be a good idea to "feed" vassals provinces rather than take on additional vassals, however, the more provinces the vassal has, and the more base tax they generate, the longer will the annexation process take.

Returning cores[edit]

The suzerain can give provinces to a vassal by forcing a defeated country to return the vassal's cores in a peace deal. This is less expensive in terms of Aggressive Expansion than taking provinces directly, but still costs the same diplomatic monarch points. Since these provinces are the vassal's cores, they will not overextend the vassal. Returning provinces gives a large boost to the receiving country's opinion of the military victor (+40 per province up to 200 total, decay at 1 per year).

Alternatively, a vassal may independently occupy an enemy province where it has a core. A province sieged by a vassal will be occupied by their suzerain, but an exception is when the vassal has a core in the province and is the siege leader. The suzerain can also transfer occupation to their vassal whenever needed.

Once a province is occupied by the vassal, the suzerain war leader can demand the enemy to directly cede the province to the vassal. If this happens, the vassal will use their own diplomatic monarch points though their overlord will still take the Aggressive Expansion for the province. This also gives an opinion boost, but less than returning a core with the suzerain's diplomatic monarch points.

Selling provinces[edit]

Selling provinces will not work if the annexation process has been started. Countries who are already vassals will only buy provinces that are either cores, claims, an accepted culture or formerly owned territory of the vassal. The province history button can confirm if a territory is formerly owned if there is no longer a claim/core there. Also the province to be sold needs to be within coring range.

It is much easier to sell provinces to countries that aren't yet vassalised, however care must be taken to make sure that after selling the province the country doesn't become ineligible to become a vassal (either diplomatically or militarily due to tax base).


  1. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua PEACE_COST_BECOME_VASSAL = 1
  2. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua VASSALIZE_BASE_DEVELOPMENT_CAP = 100
Subject nations Client stateColonial nationMarchPersonal unionProtectorateTrade companyVassal
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