This article may contain outdated information that is inaccurate for the current version of the game. It was last updated for 1.12.
- 1 The Iberian Wedding
- 2 Torquemada and the Conversion of the Moors
- 3 Fate of the Spanish Moors
- 4 Christopher Columbus
- 5 Discovery of the New World!
- 6 Ignacio de Loyola
- 7 The Quest for the New World
- 8 Crusade against Oran
- 9 Laws of Burgos
- 10 Casa de Contratación
- 11 The Sun Never Sets
- 12 The Trade Center of Sevilla
- 13 The Fuggers
- 14 The Comuneros
- 15 State Bankruptcy
- 16 The Expulsion of the Moriscos
- 17 Expulsion of the Moriscos
- 18 Baltasar de Zúñiga
- 19 Olivares
- 20 The Portuguese Crown
- 21 State Bankruptcy
- 22 Epidemic Plague
- 23 The Iberian Revolts
- 24 National revolt in Portugal
- 25 The Italian Revolts
- 26 Alberoni
- 27 Jose Moñino
- 28 The Constitution of 1812
- 29 Miguel de Cervantes
- 30 Tomás Luis de Victoria
- 31 The Italian Wars
- 32 The Italian Wars (response)
- 33 The Valladolid Debate
- 34 The Alhambra Decree
- 35 Unification of Spain
- 36 Grammar of the [Root.Culture.GetName] Tounge
- 37 A new Spanish Capital
- 38 War of Las Alpujarras
- 39 Fate of the Kingdom of Granada
- 40 New Testament Translated Into Spanish
- 41 Ottoman Expansion in the Western Mediterranean
- 42 Reforming the Colonial Administration
- 43 Expulsion of the Jesuit Order
- 44 Further events
- 45 See also
The Iberian Wedding
Ferdinand II, king of Aragon, was married to the princess Isabella of Castile in Valladolid in October 1469. This was a marriage of political opportunism, not romance. The court of Aragon dreamed of a return to Castile, and Isabella needed help to gain succession to the throne. The marriage initiated a dark and troubled life, in which Ferdinand fought on the Castilian and Aragonese fronts in order to impose his authority over the noble oligarchies, shifting his basis of support from one kingdom to the other according to the intensity of the danger. Despite the political nature of the union, he loved Isabella sincerely. Many considered Ferdinand the savior of his kingdoms, a bringer of unity. Others despised him for having oppressed them. Machiavelli attributed to him the objectionable qualities of the Renaissance prince.
Torquemada and the Conversion of the Moors
After having expelled the Jews on 3rd August 1492, the Catholic sovereigns of Spain considered it was time to look after the Moorish population of Al-Andalus, the southern part of the peninsula from the old Muslims kingdoms of Valencia and, above all, Grenada. With the renewal of the Inquisition led by Tomás de Torquemada, Spain became a country of religious fanatics where agricultural work and crafts were considered labors unworthy of Christians. Forced conversions followed as well as enslavement, torture and executions where many were burned at the stake. In the wake of these persecutions, many thousands left Spain.
Fate of the Spanish Moors
In a foolish decision of faith over economy, [From.GetName] have caused many of the Moors still living in their lands to leave.
Explorer Christopher Columbus made two attempts in 1485 and 1488 to convince the King of Portugal, John III, to finance an expedition to try and find a western route to the Orient. After being rejected the second time, Columbus turned his efforts towards the Spanish Crown. Backed up by Italian investors, Columbus finally managed to convince King Ferdinand to agree to the expedition. In August 1492, after having been made 'Admiral of the Seas' and promised a share of the profits, Columbus finally set sail.
Discovery of the New World!
On October 12, 1492, after 34 days out of sight of land, Christopher Columbus and his crew set foot on an island in the Bahamas, which Columbus named San Salvador. They had discovered a New World.
Ignacio de Loyola
Ignacio de Loyola was born in 1491 into a Basque noble family. He served as a soldier under Antonio Manrique de Lara, the Viceroy of Navarre - a Kingdom that Spain had conquered in 1512 - and was wounded in the Battle of Pamplona. When the French army, supporting the expelled Navarrese monarchy, stormed the city on May 20, 1521, Loyola was hit by a cannonball that severely injured both his legs. During the long and painful recovery, Ignacio read a translated version of Ludolph of Saxony's 'De Vita Christi' - a commentary on the life of Jesus that had a great influence on Loyola. He abandoned his military life and decided to devote himself entirely to serving God. In 1534 he and six companions formed the Society of Jesus, commonly known as the Jesuits, devoted to opposing heresy and actively promoting the counter-reformation.
The Quest for the New World
After the Conquest of Granada, Spain was filled with veterans and warriors of the faith with nothing to do and many needs. Deeds and needs would be fulfilled as Cortez and Pizarro started out to conquer South- and Central America. All these people became the hacienda-owners and trader-barons of the New World bringing wealth both into their own pockets and the vaults of the Spanish treasury.
Crusade against Oran
Early in the 16th century cardinal Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros set his sights on the North African coast, a region where his religious zeal could find an outlet now that the Reconquista was over in Spain. He personally organized and financed a crusade against the wealthy city of Oran. The port of Mers El Kebir was captured in 1505 and in 1509 a strong force accompanied by Cisneros himself and led by the Condottieri Pedro Navarro finally took Oran in an assault.
Laws of Burgos
The Laws of Burgos was a set of laws concerning the behavior of Spaniards in America that were issued in the city of Burgos in 1512. They especially concerned the treatment of the indigenous peoples. Though the laws authorized colonizers to forcibly grouping together Indians to work for them, the laws also regulated rules regarding work, pay, provisioning and living quarters. It also prohibited any form of punishment by others than the authorities. The laws however did little to ease the suffering of the Indians due to lax implementation.
Casa de Contratación
The Casa de Contratación was established by Isabella I of Castile in 1503 as a government agency to oversee all Spanish colonization. Voyages of exploration and trade had to be approved by it and all colonial taxes were collected by it. The Casa was also instructed to try and protect secret information on new trade routes and discoveries.
The Sun Never Sets
During the 16th century under the rule of Charles V, the Spanish Empire reached its greatest span. Charles' extensive domains in Europe included Spain, Austria, the Low Countries, Milan and the Kingdom of Naples. To this came numerous colonies in North and South America, Africa and Asia.
The Trade Center of Sevilla
With the discovery of the New World, Seville entered its greatest period of prosperity. It was the chief port of trade with the new colonies. Quickly the Spanish monarchs let it have the monopoly on freights from the Spanish colonies.
The Fuggers were a peasant family of weavers from Augsburg during the 15th Century who rose through trade and transactions in money to Bankers of the Habsburgs and the Popes. Jakob Fugger the Rich (1511-1525) financed Charles V wars and election to the Empire, controlled European lead, silver and copper production and obtained a monopoly in quicksilver. Anton Fugger (1525-1560) had trading concessions in Chile, Peru and Moscow. However, the company declined by the end of the 16th Century because of state bankruptcies in Spain, family conflicts and lack of interest on the part of the heirs.
The commons, angered by the exploitation by the nobles formed into brotherhoods, notably the 'Comuneros' of Castile and the 'Germania' of Valencia, and attempted to pressurize the nobles into giving them more rights and a better deal.
In 1557, on the very first year as Spanish king, Philip II was forced to declare the country bankrupt. Spain had for many years undercut its tax base and what was worse, had no control of the price-fluctuations from the inflow of American silver and gold. It was impossible for the Spanish minister of finance to forecast any repayments as all costs fluctuated volatile. The spending was based on the planned budget, but the inflow was irregular at best which made Spain spend more than it actually had, thus the Great Bankruptcies of 1557 and 1596.
The Expulsion of the Moriscos
Southern parts of Spain were inhabited mostly by Moriscos - Muslims who had converted to Catholicism under the threat of expulsion by Ferdinand and Isabella following the Reconquista. Many however continued secretly to practice Islam, and at times provided the Ottoman Turks with information facilitating Turkish raids on the Spanish coast. Persecuted by the Spanish Inquisition and subjected to restrictive legislation, the Moriscos rose in a bloody rebellion (1568-71), which Philip II put down with the help of Don John of Austria. The Moriscos prospered in spite of persecutions and furthered Spanish agriculture, trade, and industries. However, in 1609 Philip III, influenced by the Duke of Lerma, decreed their expulsion for both religious and political reasons, and the Moriscos to leave the Kingdom, only allwing them to keep what they could carry. Everything else was confiscated. The expulsions came to hurt the Spanish economy for generations.
Expulsion of the Moriscos
In a foolish decision of faith over economy Spain has chosen to expel the Moriscos living in their land. This is an opportunity to enhance our own economy. Should we allow them to settle in our provinces?
Baltasar de Zúñiga
Baltasar de Zúñiga came from a powerful Spanish noble family. He served Philip III as ambassador to Brussels, Paris and Vienna between 1599 to 1617. In the latter position he was instrumental in Spain's intervention in the Thirty Years War. In 1618 he managed to remove the Duke of Lerma as Philip III's key advisor, a position he then overtook himself. De Zúñiga's nephew, Olivares, was placed in the household of Prince Philip - later Philip IV - to assure continued dominance at the royal court.
The Duke of Olivares led the Spanish government between 1621 and 1643, under King Philip IV (1621-1665) whom he was enjoying the favor. He was devious and cunning leader, he involved Spain in the Thirty Years War alongside the Imperials and had the war with Holland renewed. This proved disastrous and precipitated Spanish decline, with secession of both Catalonia (reunited 1652) and Portugal in 1640. Under his governments, poetry, literature (Calderon) and painting (El Greco, Velasquez, and Murillo) prospered and Spanish modes and customs spread across Europe.
The Portuguese Crown
Philip I arrived in Portugal and was accepted as King (1580-98) by the Cortes held at Tomar (1581). He undertook to preserve Portuguese autonomy, to consider the union as a personal one like that of Aragon and Castile under Ferdinand and Isabella, to appoint only Portuguese to the administration, to summon Cortes frequently, and to be accompanied by a Portuguese council in Madrid.
In 1596, a couple of years after the disastrous defeat of the Armada, Philip II were again forced to declare the country bankrupt. Spain had for many years undercut its tax base and what was worse, had no control of the price-fluctuations from the inflow of American silver and gold. It was impossible for the Spanish minister of finance to forecast any repayments as all costs fluctuated volatile. The spending was based on the planned budget, but the inflow was irregular at best which made Spain spend more than it actually had, thus the Great Bankruptcies of 1557 and 1596.
The epidemics that swept Spain in the 1590s significantly reduced the population. In addition, as Philip II strengthened the Inquisition, intellectual life became narrower and less open to new currents of thought. At his death in 1598 Philip left a country that was declining domestically and internationally.
The Iberian Revolts
In 1639 Olivares opened a campaign against southern France from Catalonia. If the Catalans had to defend their country, Olivares argued, they would have to support the army. This logic was lost on the Catalans. The peasants, urged on by their clergy, refused to support the troops. Soon there were clashes with the population, then riots and open rebellion. On June 7 the mob murdered the viceroy in Barcelona. In the autumn of 1640 Olivares scraped together the last available troops and sent them against the Catalan rebels. The rebel leader, Pau Claris, countered by transferring Catalan allegiance to the king of France, 'as in the time of Charlemagne' (Jan. 1641). French troops now entered Catalonia. Only when the renewed French civil wars (the Fronde) induced the French to withdraw their army was the Castilians able to re-conquer Catalonia (1652).
National revolt in Portugal
In 1640, Portugal had been under the domination of Spanish kings for 60 years, since the fall of the Aviz dynasty in 1578. However, in 1640, the Portuguese rose up in revolt and started a long liberation war against Spain. A long 24 years struggle, along with Spanish defeat in the Thirty Years War (1648), peace with France (1659) would lead to a renewed independence for Portugal, under the new Braganza dynasty, which would turn to Stuart England as an ally and protector (marriage of Catherine of Braganza with Charles II and transfer of Bombay to England as a dowry).
The Italian Revolts
In 1647, popular revolutions broke out in Naples and Palermo, and soon these two cities were in the hands of revolutionary governments. In Naples, at least, it was again the excessive taxation, imposed for Spain's war effort that had precipitated the rebellion. The Spanish monarchy, wrote the Venetian ambassador to Madrid at the time, 'resembled that great colossus that during an earthquake had collapsed in a few moments while everyone hurried along to enrich himself with the fragments.' In fact, Spain survived and even managed to hold on to much of its empire. The revolts of Naples and Sicily, directed as much against the local nobility as against Spain, were put down in 1648.
Born in 1664 the son of a gardener in Fiorenzuela (near Placentia, Italy), Giulio Alberoni owned his political career and success to the Duke of Vendôme, the French general whom he served in Italy, France and Spain. Agent of the Duke of Parma, he facilitated the wedding of Philip V of Spain with Elizabeth Farnese and become a Cardinal in 1717. His bellicose policy in Spain had him expelled in 1719. He was cunning and sly, but Spain did not have the resources needed to fulfill his ambitious plan. The Age of Spanish Supremacy was long gone.
After the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain (1767), Moñino was sent to Rome as ambassador to obtain the papal suppression of the Society of Jesus. He was ennobled (1773) for the success of his mission. In 1776 Charles III appointed him chief minister. Under Conde de Floridablanca, as he was simply known in Spain, the Spanish enlightened despotism reached its peak, and his internal reforms, notably in finance, helped centralize the state. This however brought him into conflict with especially the Aragonese faction at court who accused him of embezzlement. After serving a three-year sentence he withdrew from public life. At the age of eighty he made a comeback into political life as he accepted the title of President of the Supreme Central and Governmental Junta that led the defense against Napoleon in 1808.
The Constitution of 1812
The Cortes, when they met at Cadiz in 1810, were dominated by liberals who wished to go beyond the mere support of the war effort and establish a constitution that would make impossible the revival of rule by a favorite like Godoy. The Constitution of Cadiz gave Spain a strictly limited monarchy (the king must work through his responsible ministers), a single-chamber Parliament with no special representation for the Church or the nobility, and a modern centralized administrative system based on provinces and municipalities.
Miguel de Cervantes
In his early twenties novelist and poet Miguel de Cervantes served as a soldier in the Spanish navy. He was captured by Algerian corsairs in 1575 and kept hostage for five years, until ransomed by his parents and a Catholic religious order. In 1585 he published his first novel, La Galetea, but continued to support himself as a purveyor and tax collector. His break as an author came in 1605 with the publication of 'The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha' which became an immediate success and was later followed by a second part in 1615.
Tomás Luis de Victoria
Although an accomplished organist and singer, Tomás Luis de Victoria preferred the more quiet life of a composer to that of a performer. He was considered the most famous composer of 16th century Spain and one of the best-regarded composers of sacred music.
The Italian Wars
The Italian Wars were a series of wars between 1494 and 1559 that involved most Italian city-states, the Papal State and drew in major powers like France, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. The earlier War of Lombardy against the Republic of Venice had left the Duchy of Milan seeking an ally and turned to Charles VIII of France for help. Using the House of Valois' old claim to the throne of Naples as a pretext when Ferdinand I of Naples died, Charles invaded the peninsula in 1494. With his army followed a large and mobile siege train that battered down the medieval city walls in a matter of days - triggering the reforms that led to the fortification style called 'Trace Italienne.' Despite tactical victories in the field, Charles became cut off from France and was forced to return home in 1498. The conflict over Italy was however far from over and the wars between Spain and France would go on for another 61 years.
The Italian Wars (response)
Our move to claim all French provinces in Italy has met with a response from France. They have now claimed all of our provinces in Italy!
The Valladolid Debate
The treatment of the native population in our colonies has become the subject of great debate among the [Root.Culture.GetName] intellectuals. A priest named Bartolomé de las Casas have made himself the spokesman of the natives and demand that we recognize their free will to receive Christ rather than force them into slavery and compelled conversions. The discussion has been going on for some time in various publications and has now culminated in a great debate being held in Valladolid at the request of [Root.Monarch.GetName]. Las Casas main opponent, Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda, argues that the natives are naturally disposed towards slavery and that this is the only sure way to get them to stop their barbaric customs of cannibalism and human sacrifice in order to make them convert to the true faith.
The Alhambra Decree
With the fall of Granada the last Muslim bastion of the Iberian Peninsula is now in Christian hands. Among our subjects there are still however a large number of Jews, Muslims and converts of questionable sincerity known as Marranos and Moriscos. In order to create a truly universal Catholic state it has been suggested that we force our Jewish population to either convert or leave the country forever with what possessions they have that are not of precious metals.
Unification of Spain
Up until now the Spanish [Root.Monarch.GetTitle] has technically been the ruler of many states that together have been known as Spain. With the recent centralization of the government however and the creation of a new type of Parliament in [Root.Capital.GetCapitalName] [Root.Monarch.GetName] has suggested that it is time that we abolish the power of the local Cortes of the Spanish states. While this will will not be an easy undertaking the alternative is to risk having the local Cortes stifle our new Parliamentary system with their old provincial interests.
Grammar of the [Root.Culture.GetName] Tounge
Spain is a country of many languages and while some attempts have been made to create a standardized overview of grammar for the [Root.Culture.GetName] language it's far from the only language used in our administration even in the core of our lands. Recently a particularly well researched and thorough new Grammar for the [Root.Culture.GetName] tongue was presented to [Root.Monarch.GetName]. When our [Root.Monarch.GetTitle] asked what use this might be to the state the bishop of Avila offered this simple suggestion: 'After Your Highness has subjected barbarous peoples and nations of varied tongues, with conquest will come the need for them to accept the laws that the conqueror imposes on the conquered, and among them will be our language.'
A new Spanish Capital
The unification of Spain has created a kingdom consisting of many former realms. [Root.Capital.GetCapitalName] has served our predecessors well but it has been suggested that the small city of Madrid with its central position and welcoming climate would be a better location from which to rule all the Spanish realms. The existing Real Alcázar de Madrid could be expanded into a suitable royal residence while the city in general is still undeveloped enough to offer a blank sheet for the city planners of our kingdom. Let us build a new capital fit to rule a Great Empire!
War of Las Alpujarras
The Christian clergy has always regarded the Morisco converts to Christianity with suspicion. This is all the more true in the recently conquered kingdom of Granada where the policies to encourage conversions have been too efficient according to some. Whether the Christian suspicions have been proven right or if it is a result of their actions to persecute feared Crypto-Catholics we cannot know but it is clear the Moriscos in the former kingdom of Granada feel they have had enough. On the slopes of the Sierra Nevada mountains the Moors have enthroned a new king of Granada and as the revolt spreads reports reach us of the destruction of churches, torture and murder of Christian priests and open defiance of our most Catholic kingdom.
Fate of the Kingdom of Granada
With all important locations in Granada once again under our control we must decide what to do with the Morisco population. It is true that most of them never supported the rebellion but how could we trust them not to turn on us in the future?
New Testament Translated Into Spanish
With its strongly Catholic history and identity the kingdom of Spain has not seen widespread interest in the Protestant reformation. There are however rumors of small groups of intellectuals secretly meeting to discuss these matters in larger cities. It is therefore with some concern that news has reached our most catholic majesty that the New Testament has been translated into Spanish by our countryman Francisco de Enzinas. While the printing presses in Spain itself are tightly controlled by the state it seems the printers of the Low Countries feel no obligation to protect the tender minds of our subjects. The Holy Inquisition has asked us to make an example of any Protestants they can find in our country to track down those who would bring the book into Spain as well as any Crypto-Lutherans inside our borders.
Ottoman Expansion in the Western Mediterranean
The expanding Ottoman Empire has long been cause for concern for the Christian countries with interest in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. With the fall of Tunis to the Ottomans they are now also present in the Western Mediterranean and seem destined to quickly supplant the weak Muslim dynasties that control most of the area. Interestingly enough the Emir in Tunis, recently ousted by Ottoman forces, has taken refuge in our country and is imploring us to retake his lost city. Perhaps his cooperation is just what we need to be able to stop the Ottoman menace before it is too late?
Reforming the Colonial Administration
The Spanish Colonial Empire is one of the oldest in the world and as such has one of the oldest systems of administration. [Root.Monarch.GetName] has recently taken an interest in how the government of the colonies might be improved in order to increase our revenue extraction from them. The advisors of [Root.Monarch.GetName] are all men of the Enlightment and have suggested a number of ways to improve the situation, among other things the colonies should be allowed to trade freely rather than through a few select ports, Intendants appointed directly by the crown should be sent out to ensure the efficiency and honesty of our administration and tax reductions for vital sectors might stimulate the growth of the colonial economies.
Expulsion of the Jesuit Order
The Society of Jesus has played a very active part in the history of our country through the years both as agents of the Counter Reformation and as facilitators of the colonization and conversion of the Americas. Through the centuries the order has come to wield considerable political power, especially in the colonies, where it has over time grown to become something of a nuisance. Our colonial administrators and landowners complain that the Jesuits protect runaway Indian slaves and that some of their reductions take up valuable land that would serve much better as a direct part of our country. The Order has also used its influence more than once to deflect or prevent our political goals and many suspect they support autonomy for our colonial possessions. The defenders of the Jesuits however claim that they bring many indirect benefits to our colonies and that we will see far from beneficial long term effects from expelling the order.
Papal approval of the Jesuit order