Army

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This page deals with the recruitment and maintenance of armies. For specific combat mechanics see land warfare. For different individual unit types see land units.

An army refers to a country's land forces.

The basic unit of land forces is the regiment, each consisting of 1000 soldiers at full strength. Each regiment is classed as Infantry, Cavalry or Artillery. Regiments are grouped into armies. Each army can be led by a general or conquistador.

Recruiting an army[edit]

Recruiting regular forces requires an owned, unoccupied province to recruit in, and three resources: Manpower.pngmanpower, Gold Icon.pngducats, and Time Icon.pngtime. Each province can recruit one regiment at a time, though multiple regiments can be queued up in a single province. The base cost and time of a regiment depends on its type; this is then adjusted by any modifiers, in particular any buildings the province might have. Regiments start with 50% of maximum morale.

Manpower[edit]

Main article: manpower

It takes Manpower.png1000 manpower to recruit a regiment.[1] Manpower is also used for reinforcing depleted regiments.

Regiment cost[edit]

Regiment cost.pngRegiment cost is computed as follows:
\text{regiment cost} = \text{base cost} \cdot \left( 100% +  \sum\text{regiment cost modifiers} \right)

Base cost[edit]

The base costs for recruiting a regiment are:[1]

  • 10Gold Icon.png for Infantry.png infantry
  • 25Gold Icon.png for Cavalry.png cavalry
  • 30Gold Icon.png for Artillery.png artillery

Regiment cost modifiers[edit]

Regiment cost may be affected by general and type-specific modifiers which are summed.

General modifiers[edit]

General modifiers reduce the cost of all types of land units.

Regiment cost.png Conditions
−20% as TengriTengri country
−5% for trading in Iron.png iron
−10% with Parliament.png parliament and “Expand the Army” as active issue
−33% as optional difficulty bonus (for the player (very easy) or the AI (very hard))

Ideas and policies:

Regiment cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
−10%
  • Kikuchi traditions
  • Quantity idea 3: Enforced Service
  • Armenian idea 5: Sygnakhs
  • Colonial idea 5: Colonial Militia
  • Polish idea 5: Wojsko Komputowe
  • Toki ambition
  • Expansion-Defensive: Local Army Organization

Decisions and events:

Regiment cost.png Event modifier Trigger Duration
−10% Hanseatic Military Reform Lübeckian event: “Tagfahrt
Option: ‘Reform the military’
until ruler changes.
−20% The Land of Flames Maravian event: “The Land of Flames for 1 year.
Type-specific modifiers[edit]

Some specific modifiers reduce only the cost of one unit type.

Infantry

Infantry cost.png Conditions
+1% for each percentage point of inflation[2]

Ideas and policies:

Infantry cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
−20%
  • Muscovite traditions
  • Imerina idea 7: Foloalindahy
  • Maratha idea 3: Peasant Soldiers
  • Taungu idea 4: Bayingyi
  • Georgian ambition
−10%
  • Butua traditions
  • Guarani traditions
  • Lorraine traditions
  • Malvi traditions
  • Maravi traditions
  • Nivernais traditions
  • Polotskian traditions
  • Somali traditions
  • Arawak idea 1: Warrior Culture
  • Bulgarian idea 4: Reform The Army
  • Interlacustrine idea 5: Emitwe
  • Jaunpuri idea 7: Modernization of the Army
  • Kongolese idea 4: Initiation Rites
  • Montenegrin idea 3: Clan Society
  • Odoyev idea 5: Cities of the Upper Oka Valley
  • Romanian idea 5: Peasant Soldiers
  • Slovak idea 5: Town Air Liberates
  • Teutonic idea 1: Reform the Army
  • Yaroslavlyian idea 3: Reform Boyars
  • Zaporozhian idea 6: Army First
  • Baden ambition
  • Tupi ambition

Decisions and events:

Infantry cost.png Event modifier Trigger Duration
+10% Mint Money Revolution disaster event: “The Road to Bankruptcy
Option: ‘Mint more money’
until end of Revolution disaster.
+25% Obsolete Forces The Peasants' War disaster event: “Obsolete Forces
Option: ‘They have no place in our society’
until end of The Peasants' War disaster.
−10% Grander Army Offensive ideas event: “Isn't our Army Grand? for 10 years.
+10% Less Grand Army Offensive ideas event: “Our Army isn't so grand
Option: ‘Looks like recruitment will be a little harder’
for 5 years and 1 day.
+10% Poor Iron Generic event: “Iron ore quality problems for 2 years.
−5% Military Focus Republic event: “Misdirected Focus
Option: ‘It's all according to plan’
for 2 years.
+5% Trade Focus Republic event: “Misdirected Focus
Option: ‘Perhaps our focus has been a bit misdirected’
for 2 years.
−20% Increased Land Republic event: “A Strong Army or Navy?
Option: ‘A large army would be more beneficial’
for 10 years.
Maritime ideas event: “Generals Bothered
Option: ‘Time to devote more attention to the army’
for 10 years.
−10% Swedish Military Reforms Swedish event: “The Military Reforms of Gustavus Adolphus
Option: ‘Regional Conscription’
for the rest of the campaign.
−10% Complete Serfdom Russian event: “The Reactionary Policy
Option: ‘Keep the Masses in Chains’
for the rest of the campaign.
+10% Increased Freedom Russian event: “The Reactionary Policy
Option: ‘Let us introduce the idea of 'Freedom'’
for the rest of the campaign.
+10% Restricted Serfdom Russian event: “Czar Paul I's Liberal Legislation
Option: ‘Restrict Serfdom’
for the rest of the campaign.
Russian event: “Czar Alexander I's Liberal Legislation
Option: ‘Abolish serfdom’
for the rest of the campaign.
+20% Greedy Janissaries Ottoman event: “Janissaries Demand Pay
Option: ‘Pay them over time’
until the monarch's death.
−10% Surplus Equipment Quantity ideas event: “Surplus Equipment for 10 years.
−10% Rajput Recruitment Jaunpuri event: “The Rajputs of the Doab
Option: ‘Let us integrate them with our forces.’
for 10 years.
+10% Nobility in Power Aristocratic Coup disaster event: “The $ESTATE_NOBLES$ Seize Power until “Curtail the Nobility”.

Cavalry

Cavalry cost.png Conditions
+1% for each percentage point of inflation[2]
+20% - −20% from Cossacks.pngcossacks estates (scales with loyalty and influence) (only with The Cossacks.png)
up to −20% from Tribestribes estates at high loyalty (scales with influence) (only with The Cossacks.png)

Ideas and policies:

Cavalry cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
−10%
  • French ducal traditions
  • Fulani traditions
  • Hejazi traditions
  • Khivan traditions
  • Polish traditions
  • Takeda traditions
  • Aristocratic idea 1: Noble Knights
  • Arabian idea 2: Arabian Horses
  • Charruan idea 4: Horse Adoption
  • Circassian idea 1: Horsemen of the Steppe
  • Couronian idea 7: Promote the Curonian Kings
  • Mazovian idea 4: Szlachta Zasciankowa
  • Nanbu idea 2: Owner of the 'Nine Gates'
  • Odoyev idea 3: Commit to Tatar Ties
  • Permian idea 2: Turkic Mercenaries
  • Punjabi idea 6: Strength of the Misls
  • Ryazan idea 2: Tatar Mercenaries
  • Serbian idea 3: Home of the Hussars
  • Shiba idea 5: Oshu Ties
  • Swedish idea 3: The 'Hakkapeliitta'
  • Teutonic idea 1: Reform the Army
  • West African idea 5: Royal Stables
  • Yaroslavlyian idea 3: Reform Boyars
  • Zaporozhian idea 6: Army First

Decisions and events:

Cavalry cost.png Event modifier Trigger Duration
+25% Obsolete Forces The Peasants' War disaster event: “Obsolete Forces
Option: ‘They have no place in our society’
until end of The Peasants' War disaster.
−10% Grander Army Offensive ideas event: “Isn't our Army Grand? for 10 years.
+10% Less Grand Army Offensive ideas event: “Our Army isn't so grand
Option: ‘Looks like recruitment will be a little harder’
for 5 years and 1 day.
+10% Poor Iron Generic event: “Iron ore quality problems for 2 years.
−5% Military Focus Republic event: “Misdirected Focus
Option: ‘It's all according to plan’
for 2 years.
+5% Trade Focus Republic event: “Misdirected Focus
Option: ‘Perhaps our focus has been a bit misdirected’
for 2 years.
−10% Increased Aristocracy Liberum Veto event: “Further concessions demanded
Option: ‘We grant these concessions’
for 10 years.
Plutocratic ideas event: “Aristocrats concerned
Option: ‘Maybe we can give a little’
for 10 years.
Lithuanian event: “Magnates crave 'Polish Rights'” (3 events)
Option: ‘More Rights than Duties’
for 10 years.
English event: “The Northern Rebellion
Option: ‘Keep Norfolk in the Tower and start to negotiate’
for 5 years.
English event: “The Northern Rebellion
Option: ‘Release Norfolk’
for 10 years.
Dutch republic event (only Res Publica.png): “Nobles Look to the House of Orange
Option: ‘We'll pay that price and cede what power we need to.’
for 5 years.
+10% Increased Plutocracy Aristocratic ideas event: “Merchants complain
Option: ‘Maybe I can help’
for 10 years.
Dynastic event: “Regent usurps The Throne
Option: Alas, it was destined.’
for 20 years.
−20% Increased Land Republic event: “A Strong Army or Navy?
Option: ‘A large army would be more beneficial’
for 10 years.
Maritime ideas event: “Generals Bothered
Option: ‘Time to devote more attention to the army’
for 10 years.
−10% Horse Population Boom Quantity ideas event: “Horse Population Boom for 10 years.
−5% Portuguese Trade Contacts Malian event: “The Wangara and the Portuguese until Malian event “Portuguese Meddling”
Option: ‘Act decisively to limit Portuguese influence.’
+25% Nobility in Power Aristocratic Coup disaster event: “The $ESTATE_NOBLES$ Seize Power until “Curtail the Nobility”.

Artillery

Artillery cost.png Conditions
+1% for each percentage point of inflation[2]

Ideas and policies:

Artillery cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
−20%
  • Smolenskian idea 4: The Great Foundry

Decisions and events:

Artillery cost.png Event modifier Trigger Duration
+20% Poor Copper Generic event: “Poor Quality Copper for 2 years.
+10% Western Military Influence Russian event: “Extended Visit Pays Off
Option: ‘Our armed forces will benefit from this!’
for 10 years.
−10% Cheap Iron Quantity ideas event: “Cheap Iron for 10 years.

Recruitment time[edit]

The Recruitment time.pngrecruitment time of a regiment is computed as follows:

\text{recruitment time} = \text{base time} \cdot \left( 100% +  \sum\text{recruitment time modifiers} \right)

Base time[edit]

The base time for recruiting a regiment is:[1]

  • 60 days for Infantry.png infantry
  • 90 days for Cavalry.png cavalry
  • 120 days for Artillery.png artillery

Recruitment time modifiers[edit]

Recruitment time can be affected by countrywide and provincial modifiers which are added.

Countrywide modifiers
Recruitment time.png Conditions
−10% for trading in Copper.png copper
−10% with Parliament.png parliament and “Expand the Army” as active issue
+2% for each point of Icon war exhaustion.png war exhaustion[2]

Ideas and policies:

Recruitment time.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
−10%
  • Expansion idea 4: Organized Recruitment
  • Offensive idea 2: National Conscripts
  • Aymaran idea 7: Ayni Duties
  • Prussian idea 6: Regimental Cantons
  • Tarascan idea 4: War Bonfires
−5%
  • Lunda idea 4: An Army Overnight

Events and missions:

Recruitment time.png Event modifier Trigger Duration
−30% Recruits Flock to the Standards Offensive ideas event: “Recruits flock to the standards for 10 years.
+30% Conscription Resisted Offensive ideas event: “People don't want to be conscripted
Option: ‘Well I am sure we can slow down recruitment in the short term’
for 10 years.
−5% Trade and Production Cutbacks Noble republic event: “Military Spending
Option: ‘Well, trade and production aren't as important’
for 2 years.
+5% Military Cutbacks Noble republic event: “Military Spending
Option: ‘Cut back on military expenses’
for 2 years.
−10% Legitimacy Questioned English War of the Roses disaster event: “Legitimacy Questioned
Option: ‘How dare they question me?’
for 5 years or the end of the War of the Roses.
−5% Western Military Influence Russian event: “Extended Visit Pays Off
Option: ‘Our armed forces will benefit from this!’
for 10 years.
+50% Sejm Refuse Troops Polish culture event: “The Sejm refuse to allow the mobilization of more troops
Option: ‘Ok’
until monarchs death.
−15% Thriving Arms Industry Construction mission: “Create an army for our nation for 10 years.
Construction mission: “Protect against $COUNTRY$ for 10 years.
Provincial modifiers
Regiment recruit speed.png Conditions
+20%.0 for blockaded provinces[2]
+30%.0 for looted provinces[2]
+10%.0 for each point Local unrest.png local unrest[2]
−1%.0 per provincial tax income[2]

Composition[edit]

See also: Battlefield unit deployment logic

To maximize combat effectiveness of an army, the ratio of infantry, cavalry and artillery is vital.

  • To avoid the insufficient support penalty, an army must not surpass the maximum ratio of cavalry per infantry regiments.
  • Artillery can fire from the second line, and therefore can vastly increase the effectiveness of an army.
  • Artillery defends first line units from attacks with half of its defense points in the corresponding battle phase.
  • Since artillery takes twice the normal damage when in the front line, it should be deployed in the second line. To achieve this, the number of artillery should not exceed the number of cavalry and infantry combined. Also reserves should be calculated to replace lost regiments in first line.
  • With artillery being three times and cavalry two-and-a-half times more expensive than infantry, a more infantry heavy but cheaper army could be more cost-efficient, especially if a nation suffers from cavalry or artillery penalties. Eight infantry regiments can easily beat three infantry + two cavalry due to flanking effects.
  • Having a 40 regiment army in a province with only 30 supply limit will cause massive attrition. It is wise to split an army in half when crossing territory with low supply limits in order to keep attrition at a minimum.

Example army relying on above information: (On plain terrain, with 11 combat width from technology and 15 base, 50% insufficient support limit)

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+ 8 infantry, 5 cavalry reserves potentially not fielded if combat width too small


For Eastern/Western factions where there are few nation bonuses to cavalry combat effectiveness, cavalry should be fielded only to maximize flanking effectiveness. The number of cavalry should therefore change with flanking range at military technology 18 and 30. To understand why, consider that infantry begins with 1 flanking range and cavalry 2. This means that if you outnumber the enemy, there is only need for 2 cavalry units for the far-flanks as your infantry will flank one unit to the side. This dynamic changes at military technology 18 where infantry has 1 flanking range, but cavalry has 3. Here, a minimum of 4 cavalry units (2 on each side) is required. The dynamic changes for the last time at level 30, where 6 cavalry units will be required for maximize flanking.

For example:

  • Early game: 8 infantry, 2 cavalry, 5 artillery
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  • Mid game: 18 infantry, 2 cavalry, 10 artillery
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  • Late game: 36 infantry, 4 cavalry, 20 artillery
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  • This rule does not apply to non-Eastern/Western nations who may have cavalry combat effectiveness bonuses and/or inferior infantry units compared to their Eastern/Western counterparts. Therefore, if you are playing Anatolian, Muslim or Nomadic factions and seek only combat effectiveness, field as many cavalry as the insufficient support limit allows.
  • Fewer losses will be sustained with numerical superiority. When above 10:1, victory may be granted with no combat. To attain numerical superiority, it may require exceeding the supply limit temporarily, especially if forces are technologically inferior. By splitting forces, it is possible to lure an enemy into an unfavorable position without exceeding supply limits.
  • When defending against a numerically superior army, fighting in terrain with combat width reduction is ideal. Forests, hills and mountains reduce combat width for both sides, allowing you to match the combat-width of the enemy, eliminating any potential flanking disadvantage. Thus, it may be effective not to field any cavalry in these scenarios, but an infantry-artillery only army as artillery can still fire from the second line.

Maintenance[edit]

An army needs a certain amount of money every month as maintenance. These cost can be influenced by the army maintenance slider of the economy interface. Reducing the maintenance slider can (multiplicatively) reduce maintenance cost by up to half, but also reduces reinforcement rates and morale. At 0% funding, regiments will not reinforce, and maximum morale will be reduced by 100% (additive with other percentage modifiers) to a minimum of 0.51 (the minimum required for an army to move).

Land maintenance modifier.png Regiment maintenance cost[edit]

The maintenance cost (at a full maintenance slider) of a regiment is computed as follows:

{ \text{regiment maintenance cost per month} = 0.02 \cdot \left( \text{regiment strength} \right) \cdot \left( \text{base regiment cost} \right) \cdot \left( 100\% + \sum\text{regiment cost modifiers} \right) \cdot \left( 100\% +  \sum\text{land maintenance cost modifiers} \right) \cdot \left( 100\% + 1% \cdot \text{military technology} \right)}

In other words, they cost 2% of their recruitment cost,[3] multiplied by the sum of all maintenance modifiers, multiplied by the technology factor, per month. Therefore, any modifier that affects the cost of creating new regiments (at the time of recruitment) also affects the maintenance of units.

Maintenance cost modifiers[edit]

These modifiers affect the maintenance cost of land units and generally work additively, except for the maintenance impact of +1% per Military tech.png military technology[4], which is multiplicative with all other factors.

Land maintenance modifier.png Conditions
0 - −20% from having 100% militarization with Government monarchy.png Prussian Monarchy (scales with militarization) (only with Rights of Man.png)
+10% - −10% from Nobility.png nobility estates (scales with loyalty and influence) (only with The Cossacks.png)
−10% for having a Advisor Grand Captain.png grand captain as advisor
−20% for raising war taxes for up to two years
−10% for trading in Salt.pngsalt
−50% for having a native council government
−50% for being the Revolution target.png revolution target.
−10% with Parliament.png parliament and “Quartering of Troops” as active issue
−10% for having the reform “A Unified Army” as Mayan.png Mayan country

Ideas and policies:

Land maintenance modifier.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
−15%
  • Scottish ambition
−10%
  • Amago traditions
  • Golden Horde traditions
  • Manchu traditions
  • Defensive idea 4: Regimental System
  • Economic idea 6: Nationalistic Enthusiasm
  • Quantity idea 4: The Old and Infirm
  • Horde idea 3: Horse Supplies
  • Najdi idea 6: Unite the Tribes
  • Arawak ambition
  • Nubian ambition
  • Administrative-Quantity: Provincial Taxation System

Decisions and events:

Land maintenance modifier.png Event modifier Trigger Duration
−10% The Great Army Reorganization Swedish event: “The Great Army Reorganization
Option: ‘Reform the army’
for the rest of the campaign.
−10% The Brandenburg Recess Brandenburg/Prussia event: “The Brandenburg Recess” (only with Rights of Man.png)
Option: ‘They shall dance to my tune or the devil will fetch me!’
until the death of the current ruler.
+10% Administrative Problems Quantity ideas event: “Administrative Problems for 10 years.
−10% Regimental Pride Defensive ideas event: “Regimental Pride for 10 years.
−15% Thriving Arms Industry Construction mission: “Create an army for our nation for 10 years.
Construction mission: “Protect against $COUNTRY$ for 10 years.

Total maintenance cost[edit]

See also: Force limit

The total maintenance cost of an army depends on the land force limit of a country.

Define the land force limit ratio as \text{land force limit ratio} = \frac{\text{number of land units}}{\text{land force limit}}

If a country has more land units than its land force limit, maintenance for those units will be multiplied by land force limit ratio. For example, if a country has 10 regiments on a land force limit of 5, land force limit ratio being 2, the maintenance for each land unit is doubled. \text{total maintenance cost per month} = \sum \text{regiment maintenance cost per month} \cdot \text{max(land force limit ratio, } 1\text{)}

Quality idea group.pngQuality[edit]

While quantity is an important factor in warfare, quality could be considered even more crucial in the grand scheme of things. An army outnumbered by 10,000 men can find victory in better discipline and morale, and as an opponent of war-orientated European continentals such as France and Prussia, many will most likely experience the effects of these high-quality armies at some point.

Several idea groups can be taken to progressively improve armies' performance on the battlefield. Additionally, some countries get specific bonuses resembling the strength their army had in actual history.

General improvements[edit]

  • Choosing the right land units: as military technology advances, new unit types will be unlocked. Troops should be upgraded whenever a better option is available.

Icon shock.pngIcon fire.png Combat ability improvements[edit]

Combat ability is a value that is multiplied with the units' damage dealt (both for casualties and morale), making it work similarly like discipline, but only for a specific type of unit while discipline affects infantry, cavalry and artillery alike. It also has no effect on military tactics, unlike discipline.

Infantry combat ability

Infantry combat ability.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+20%
  • Swedish traditions
  • Prussian idea 5: The Goose Step
  • Innovative-Quality: Modern Firearm Techniques
+15%
  • Italian (cU) idea 2: The Tradition of the Legion
  • Bulgarian ambition
  • Japanese ambition
+10%
  • Ashanti traditions
  • Aztec traditions
  • Burmese traditions
  • Date traditions
  • German traditions
  • Hosokawa traditions
  • Iroquois traditions
  • Milanese traditions
  • Québécois traditions
  • Shimazu traditions
  • Slovak traditions
  • Songhai traditions
  • Swiss traditions
  • Vijayanagar traditions
  • Zambezi traditions
  • Quality idea 1: Private to Marshal
  • Amago idea 2: Izumo Shugo
  • Arawak idea 5: Arawak Raiders
  • Brazilian idea 4: Halting Foreign Incursions
  • Butua idea 3: Empowering the Rozwi
  • Carib idea 2: Poisonous Warfare
  • Central Indian idea 5: Raiding the Lowlands
  • Chickasaw idea 2: Spartans of the Lower Mississippi
  • Chinese idea 5: Firearm Training
  • Croatian idea 7: Pandurs
  • Dai Viet idea 1: The Great Proclamation
  • Dithmarscher idea 1: Resistance to Feudalism
  • Ethiopian idea 7: Reformed Armies
  • French ducal idea 3: Qui Ruit Et Lethum
  • Galician idea 7: Irmandinos
  • Greek idea 3: Klephtic Recruitment
  • Guarani idea 7: Royal Armaments
  • Interlacustrine idea 6: Unity of the Clans
  • Laotian idea 5: Laotian Elephant Cavalry
  • Leonese idea 7: Leonese Nationalism
  • Maravi ideas 5: Serving Abroad
  • Nepali idea 6: The Gurkhas
  • Orissan idea 1: Lord of the Elephants
  • Polish idea 3: Piechota Wybraniecka
  • Roman idea 4: The Roman Legions
  • Sadiyan idea 6: Reform the Sadiya Armies
  • Satake idea 4: Kashima Jingu
  • Shiba idea 7: Mogami Family
  • Somali idea 4: Offensive Warfare
  • Tarascan idea 1: Copperworking
  • Teutonic idea 3: Adjust our Infantry Tactics
  • Tsutsui idea 1: Warrior Monks
  • Tupi idea 3: It Is A Good Day To Die
  • Tverian idea 6: Tverian Tercio
  • Imerina ambition
  • Indian Sultanate ambition
  • Korean ambition
  • Malian ambition
  • Mayan ambition
  • Montenegrin ambition
  • Nivernais ambition
  • Polotskian ambition
  • Serbian ambition
  • Uesugi ambition
+5%
  • Athenian idea 7: Athenian Army Reform
  • Bohemian idea 3: Wagenburg
  • Kongo idea 5: The Triangle Trade
  • Ryazan idea 5: March of Russia

Cavalry combat ability

Cavalry combat ability.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+33%
  • Polish idea 4: Winged Hussars
+20%
  • Great Yuan traditions
  • Hungarian traditions
  • Mughal traditions
  • Golden Horde idea 3: Tatar Traditions
  • Horde idea 2: Traditions of the Great Khan
  • Kazani idea 3: Warrior Society
  • Lithuanian idea 5: Lithuanian Hussars
  • Timurid idea 2: The Mantle of the Great Khan
  • Aristocratic-Espionage: Noble Loyalty Act
+15%
  • Afghan idea 5: Durrani Imperialism
  • Anatolian idea 3: Akîncî Cavalry
  • Ansbach idea 7: Dragoons of Ansbach
  • Couronian idea 7: Promote the Curonian Kings
  • Finnish idea 2: The Hakkapeliitta
  • Karamanid idea 3: Karamanid Cavalry
  • Khivan idea 1: Horde Legacy
  • Manchu idea 4: Link with the Mongol Dynasty
  • Ottoman idea 3: Timariot System
  • Ruthenian idea 3: Zaporozhian Cossacks
  • Serbian idea 4: Alemannic Guard
  • Transylvanian idea 1: Unio Trium Nationum
  • Hejazi ambition
+10%
  • Bavarian traditions
  • Croatian traditions
  • Indian Sultanate traditions
  • Mamluk traditions
  • Mazovian traditions
  • Mossi traditions
  • Northumbrian traditions
  • Persian traditions
  • Takeda traditions
  • Teutonic traditions
  • Aristocratic idea 1: Noble Knights
  • Quality idea 3: Finest of Horses
  • Berber idea 5: Tuareg Cavalry
  • Caucasian idea 7: Cavalry Armies
  • Lan Xang idea 2: Elephant Cavalry
  • Maratha idea 1: Tradition of Military Service
  • Nubian idea 6: Desert Cavalry
  • Rajput idea 3: Marwari Horses
  • Sukhothai idea 7: War Elephants
  • Vijayanagar idea 2: Arab Horses
  • Wurzburgian idea 3: Franconian Circle
  • Charruan ambition
  • Vindhyan ambition
+5%
  • Circassian idea 1: Horsemen of the Steppe
  • Ogasawara idea 3: Kiso-uma

Artillery combat ability

Artillery combat ability.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+10%
  • Quality idea 7: Massed Battery
  • Smolenskian idea 6: Artillery Before All
  • Otomo ambition
  • Satake ambition
  • Offensive-Economic: Horse Artillery
+5%
  • Athenian idea 7: Athenian Army Reform

Morale of armies.png Morale improvements[edit]

Morale indicates how long an army can keep fighting without routing. It is affected by both prestige and power projection, which increase morale by +0.1% for every point.

Army morale

Morale of armies.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+20%
  • French idea 2: Elan!
  • Prussian idea 3: Army Professionalism
+15%
  • Spanish traditions
  • Defensive idea 2: Military Drill
  • Air idea 2: Cross of Agades
  • Polish idea 7: Focus on Field Defenses
+10%
  • Austrian traditions
  • Beninese traditions
  • Burgundian traditions
  • Butua traditions
  • Client State traditions
  • Dithmarscher traditions
  • Hatakeyama traditions
  • Huron traditions
  • Moldavian traditions
  • Ogasawara traditions
  • Pacific Northwest traditions
  • Persian traditions
  • Pomeranian traditions
  • Provençal traditions
  • Tsutsui traditions
  • Welsh traditions
  • Plutocratic idea 2: Abolished Serfdom
  • Amago idea 4: Ten Brave Warriors
  • American idea 4: Lessons of Valley Forge
  • Aragonese idea 7: Protect the Little Folk
  • Aymaran idea 5: The Tinku Rites
  • Aztec idea 4: Eagles and Jaguars
  • Bulgarian idea 6: Military Flexibility
  • Carib idea 3: Resistance towards the Pailanti'po
  • Catalan idea 6: 'Lliures o Morts'
  • Chachapoyan idea 1: Warriors of the Clouds
  • Charruan idea 6: Garra Charrua
  • Cherokee idea 5: Ghigau
  • Chiba idea 2: Dream of Masakado
  • Creek idea 7: Red Sticks
  • Daimyo idea 4: The Five Rings
  • Desmondian idea 3: Gaelic Bastion
  • Finnish idea 7: The Anjala Conspiracy
  • French ducal idea 7: La Petite Nation
  • Fulani Jihad idea 4: Imans and Emirs
  • Galician idea 5: Santiago y Cierra!
  • Garhwali idea 3: Martial Diplomacy
  • Great Yuan idea 2: A Savage Kingdom Holy and Enchanted
  • Imerina idea 2: The Twelve Sampys of Imerina
  • Ionian idea 1: Frankokratia
  • Kangra idea 3: Martial Heritage
  • Khmer idea 1: Preah Ko Preah Keo
  • Kikuchi idea 4: Fortify the Domain
  • Krakowian idea 1: Legendary Legacy
  • K'iche idea 6: K'iq'ab's Vengeance
  • Luban idea 4: Encourage the Kasala Tradition
  • Manipur idea 2: Martial Traditions
  • Mayan idea 7: Caste War
  • Medri Bahri idea 5: Independent Traditions
  • Mexican idea 7: Grito de Delores
  • Miao idea 3: Unity of the Tribes
  • Nanbu idea 1: Genji in the North
  • Native idea 1: Counting Coups
  • Neapolitan idea 4: Crush the Power of the Barons
  • Nepali idea 5: The Royal Kumari
  • Nivernais idea 4: True Frenchmen
  • Pegu idea 4: Ramannadesa
  • Sadiyan idea 1: Land of Glory
  • Semien idea 1: Legacy of Queen Judith
  • Serbian idea 7: Balkan Hajduks
  • Shiba idea 4: Atsuta Shrine
  • Shimazu idea 1: Satsuma Hayato
  • Shoni idea 2: Defender of Japan
  • Slovak idea 7: Slovak National Awakening
  • Songhai idea 3: Jihad Against the Pagans
  • Takeda idea 1: Leader of Kai Genji
  • Taungu idea 5: Chakravartin
  • Trebizondian idea 5: The Lessons of the Fourth Crusade
  • Uesugi idea 4: Dragon of Echigo
  • Yarkandi idea 5: Holy Warriors
  • Yi idea 7: Children of the Black Tiger
  • Ajuuraan ambition
  • Athenian ambition
  • Circassian ambition
  • Colonial ambition
  • Dai Viet ambition
  • Kievan ambition
  • Punjabi ambition
  • Ryazan ambition
  • Religious-Quantity: Field priests and Soldier's prayer books
+5%
  • Quality-Religious: The Military Zeal Act

Recover army morale speed.png Morale recovery improvements[edit]

This modifier will affect how long an army will take to recover to full morale after it was lost in a battle or by changing the maintenance slider.

Army morale recovery

Recover army morale speed.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+10.0%
  • Quality-Administrative: The Liquor Act
+5.0%
  • Armenian traditions
  • Fulani traditions
  • Hungarian traditions
  • Ryazan traditions
  • Pskovian idea 2: Legacy of Daumantas
  • Fully Offensive
  • Persian ambition
  • Expansion-Defensive: Local Army Organization
  • Humanist-Defensive: The Preparation Act
  • Religious-Quantity: Field priests and Soldier's prayer books

General.png General improvements[edit]

These modifiers all affect the outcoming of hiring a leader. When a modifier is active, it will take effect after a general or conquistador has been rolled. For example, when a nation has a +1 land leader Shock modifier and it rolls a leader with 3 points in shock. The +1 land leader shock modifier will then be added making it a leader with 4 shock points.

Land leader shock

Land leader shock.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+1
  • Manchu traditions
  • Scottish traditions
  • Offensive idea 1: Bayonet Leaders
  • Ajuuraan idea 6: Expelling the Infidel
  • Arawak idea 7: Jungle Warfare
  • Charruan idea 3: Bolas Warfare
  • Chiba idea 5: Katori Jingu
  • Hatakeyama idea 2: Indomitable Generals
  • Horde idea 4: Steppe Leaders
  • Jerusalem idea 5: Crusader Aristocracy
  • Lithuanian idea 1: Warlord Dukes
  • Mexican idea 6: Heroes of the Revolution
  • Shan idea 5: Raiders
  • Shoni idea 5: Bear of Hizen
  • Tibetan idea 2: Bön Influence.
  • Wallachian idea 5: Legacy of the Impaler
  • Yamana idea 4: The Western Army
  • Air ambition
  • Arabian ambition
  • Manchu ambition
  • Swedish ambition
  • Humanist-Quantity: Inspirational Leaders

Land leader fire

Land leader fire.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+1
  • Offensive idea 3: Superior Firepower
  • Ming idea 7: The Red Cannon
  • Rajput idea 6: Martial Ethos
  • Smolenskian idea 5: Hold The Line
  • Bohemian ambition
  • Utsunomiya ambition
  • Expansion-Quality: The Mining Act

Land leader maneuver

Land leader maneuver.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+2
  • Shawnee ambition
+1
  • Carib traditions
  • Defensive idea 3: Improved Maneuver
  • Air idea 6: Nomadic Traditions
  • Albanian idea 2: Land of Ambushers
  • Caucasian idea 3: Hit and Run
  • Kazani idea 5: Steppe Warfare
  • Pacific Northwest idea 5: Legacy of Raven
  • Permian idea 5: Warriors of the Taiga
  • Romanian idea 2: Skilled Commanders
  • Tapuian idea 5: The Way of the Jaguar
  • Zaporozhian idea 4: Hit And Run
  • Lithuanian ambition
  • Quantity-Exploration: Hired Adventurers

Leader siege

Leader siege.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+1
  • Nepali idea 7: Envelopment and Blockade
  • Innovative-Offensive: Modern Siege Weapons

Discipline.png Discipline improvements[edit]

Discipline is a very important combat modifier, as it both multiplies the amount of casualties and the morale cost of these casualties. It starts off at 100%.
Discipline.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+5.0%
  • Anatolian traditions
  • Couronian traditions
  • Finnish traditions
  • Imagawa traditions
  • Japanese traditions
  • Knights Hospitaller traditions
  • Nanbu traditions
  • Ottoman traditions
  • Roman traditions
  • Romanian traditions
  • Shawnee traditions
  • Teutonic traditions
  • Wallachian traditions
  • Offensive idea 7: Esprit de Corps
  • Ando idea 6: True Shogun of Oshu
  • Bavarian idea 6: Found a Professional Army
  • Burgundian idea 4: Reform of the Feudal Army
  • Butua idea 5: Regular Training
  • Byzantine idea 6: The New Imperial Army
  • Dahomey idea 5: The Amazons
  • Candarid idea 5: Legacy of the Candar Corps
  • Daimyo idea 1: Bushido
  • Divine idea 1: Holy Order
  • English idea 6: Reform of Commission Buying
  • Hessian idea 5: Modernization of the Hessian Army
  • Hungarian idea 3: Found the Black Army
  • Iroquois idea 6: Warriors Unity
  • Jerusalem idea 3: Frontier State
  • Kaffan idea 6: King of Kings
  • Kangra idea 7: Tigers of the Himalayas
  • Khmer idea 5: European Mercenaries
  • Kongo idea 7: Defend Against the Colonists
  • Malian idea 4: Mandinka Warrior Spirit
  • Mamluk idea 4: Reform of the Army
  • Mapuche idea 2: Clava Clubs
  • Ming idea 2: Revive the Three Grand Divisions
  • Mughal idea 2: The Jagir and Mansabdari Systems
  • Münster idea 5: Soldiers of the Imperial Armies
  • Mutapan idea 1: Mwenemutapa
  • Otomo idea 3: Loyal Retainers
  • Pacific Northwest idea 1: Great Whale Hunts
  • Persian idea 3: Found the Ghulams
  • Polish idea 6: Found the Foreign section
  • Punjabi idea 7: Reforming the Punjabi Army
  • Saxon idea 7: The Saxon Circle
  • Shimazu idea 4: Tsurinobuse
  • Spanish idea 1: The Reconquista
  • Swedish idea 2: Swedish Steel
  • Tibetan idea 6: The Way of the Ancients
  • Uesugi idea 6: Agakita-shu
  • Vijayanagar idea 7: An Army for the City of Victory
  • Full Quality
  • Amago ambition
  • Ansbach ambition
  • Carib ambition
  • French ambition
  • Karamanid ambition
  • Nepali ambition
  • Ogasawara ambition
  • Papal ambition
  • Prussian ambition
  • Rajput ambition
  • Ruthenian ambition
  • Songhai ambition
  • Swiss ambition
  • Ambition of Theodoro
  • Timurid ambition
  • Tuscan ambition
  • Yamana ambition
  • Economic-Quality: Weapon Quality Standards
+3.0%
  • Austrian idea 7: Hofkriegsrat
+2.5%
  • Incan idea 4: Drafted Hatun Runas
  • National idea 1: Preserve Our Troops
  • Norwegian idea 7: Write New Sagas

Army tradition[edit]

Main article: Military tradition#Army tradition

Army tradition provides powerful boons to the offensive power of armies. It also provides a higher chance of getting land leaders with a high fire/shock/maneuver/siege value. 100 army tradition gives the following bonuses, which scale linearly to 0% at 0 tradition.

at 100:

Recover army morale speed.png +10% Recover army morale speed
Morale of armies.png +25% Morale of armies
Manpower recovery speed.png +10% Manpower recovery speed
Siege ability.png +5% Siege ability
Temples faction influence +0.10 Temples faction influence
Aristocrats influence +0.10 The aristocrats influence
Girondist influence +0.10 Girondists influence
Militarization of state.png +0.10 Militarization of state


Attrition.pngSupply and attrition[edit]

An army will take attrition damage on the first day of each month if the total supply weight of all non-hostile armies in the province exceeds the supply limit of that province. This can happen even in owned provinces. The amount of attrition depends on the supply weight of all troops in that province in comparison to the local supply limit.

Supply weight[edit]

Each regiment in an army has a supply weight of 1. The total supply weight of an army with a leader is reduced by 1 for each point of maneuver the leader has. Province modifiers that increase attrition act by increasing the supply weight of each army in addition to increasing attrition. The final attrition damage for an army is determined by this formula:

 \text{attrition (} \% \text{)} = \left( \frac{ \# \text{ of troops} }{1000} + \text{Unit Weight attrition modifiers} - \text{TRUNC(supply limit)} \right) \cdot \frac{10}{ \text{TRUNC(supply limit)} } + \text{province attrition modifiers}

where

\text{supply limit} = \text{base} \cdot (1 + \text{supply limit efficiency})

The only exception to this is if an army has moved into a province where two hostile forces are engaged in combat. As the combatants are temporarily neutral to the newly arrived army, some of their supply weight will still be added to this armies' and may cause attrition.

Supply limit.pngSupply limit[edit]

The base supply limit of each province depends on the terrain type:

Source Supply limit
Base +6
Farmlands +10
Grassland +8
Drylands +7
Coastline +6
Highlands +6
Savannah +6
Steppes +6
Woods +6
Hills +5
Jungle +5
Marsh +5
Coastal Desert +4
Desert +4
Glacier +2
Mountains +4
Forest +4

This is then adjusted by supply limit efficiency modifiers. All modifiers below stack additively:

Amount Source
+50% Province is coastal
+25% Owner of province
+10% Military Access/Allied/Controlled/Cored Enemy Province
+2% Per Development.png development level
up to −10% Proportional to the level of Looting speed.png looting
−50% Scorched earth.png Scorched earth
−20% Arid Arid climate
−30% Tropical Tropical climate
−40% Arctic Arctic climate
−10% Mild winter.png Mild winter
−20% Normal winter.png Normal winter
−30% Severe winter.png Severe winter
+50% Military tech.png Military technology level 5
+50% Military tech.png Military technology level 12
+50% Military tech.png Military technology level 17
+50% Military tech.png Military technology level 19
+50% Military tech.png Military technology level 27
+50% Military tech.png Military technology level 31

There are currently no ideas to alter this further.

Attrition.pngAttrition damage[edit]

Under normal circumstances, the amount of attrition is x%, where x is 10/supply limit, for each point of supply weight in excess of the local supply limit, up to a maximum of 5%. Armies that are besieging hostile provinces take 1 unit of supply weight extra attrition, regardless of their size. An army trying to take back its own captured province does not suffer this penalty. For the duration of a battle, the armies engaged do not suffer attrition.

Example: An army with 20 supply weight in a province with 17 supply limit would normally take (20 - 17)*(10/17) = 1.76% attrition each month. If that army were besieging a hostile province it would suffer (20 + 1 - 17)*10/17 = 2.35% attrition.

Attrition damage is applied before reinforcements, so an army suffering from attrition will not take noticeable damage unless the attrition exceeds the reinforcement rate. This can mask an otherwise severe drain in manpower due to attrition, so players are advised to pay careful attention to any army with the attrition icon (Attrition).

Attrition modifiers[edit]

Climates that increase attrition according to the in-game tooltips act by increasing each army's supply weight instead. Looted and scorched provinces will also increase local attrition rates. Attrition stacks additively.

Modifier Supply
Weight
Max
Attrition
Extra Attrition
for Enemies
Arctic +1 +1 +1%
Tropical +1 +5 +2%
Arid +1 +10 +1%
Mild Winter - +1 +1%
Normal Winter - +2 +2%
Severe Winter - +5 +5%
Looted - +5
Scorched Earth +5 +5 -
General Maneuver Pips -(1-6) -

Example: An army with base supply weight 8 is in an enemy arctic province with an ally army of base supply weight 4. The local supply limit is 14 and there is a severe winter in effect. The attrition damage would then be 8 + 4 + 1 + 5 - 14 = 4% attrition. The supply weight penalty from the arctic weather is only applied once.

The 7th idea of the Defensive Ideas group, Improved Foraging, reduces all attrition taken by friendly armies by 25%, applied multiplicatively. For example, an army under the supply limit with Improved Foraging besieging an enemy province takes 0.7% monthly attrition. It would make sense for the attrition to be 0.75% monthly, but the attrition display indicates 0.7%. The bonus for completing the Defensive Ideas group causes enemy troops to take 1% attrition on top of normal attrition values while in friendly territory.

Unique national ideas, idea groups and policies which affect land attrition:

Land attrition.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
−25%
  • Defensive idea 7: Improved Foraging
  • Humanist-Defensive: The Preparation Act
  • Quality-Exploration: Superior Supply Systems
−20%
  • Kongo traditions
  • Horde idea 1: The Life of a Steppe Warrior
−15%
  • Arabian traditions
  • Canadian traditions
  • Siberian traditions
  • Charruan idea 2: Legacy of the Pampas
  • Zaporozhian idea 3: Steppe Riders
−10%
  • Caucasian traditions
  • Ethiopian traditions
  • Khivan traditions
  • Kongolese traditions
  • Malian traditions
  • Pacific Northwest traditions
  • Quantity idea 7: Expanded Supply Trains
  • Aymaran idea 3: Chu'uqi Production
  • Hejazi idea 4: Desert Warfare
  • Incan idea 7: Tambo Waystations
  • Sami idea 6: Living off the Land
  • Tapuian idea 1: Hunter Gatherers
  • Venetian idea 7: Found the provveditori ai beni inculti
  • Chickasaw ambition

Additionally, there are ideas that give a malus to attrition to enemies on a nation's territory:

Attrition for enemies.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+1.0
  • Brazilian traditions
  • Dai Viet traditions
  • Interlacustrine traditions
  • Garhwali traditions
  • Kangra traditions
  • Kongolese traditions
  • Luban traditions
  • Lunda traditions
  • Mapuche traditions
  • Montenegrin traditions
  • Northumbrian traditions
  • Ogasawara traditions
  • Polotskian traditions
  • Sadiyan traditions
  • Tumbuka traditions
  • Welsh traditions
  • Afghan idea 7: Graveyard of Empires
  • Assamese idea 3: River Warfare
  • Baluch idea 1: Natural Defences
  • Berber idea 2: Desert Warfare
  • Bosnian idea 7: Over the Hills and Through the Woods
  • Carib idea 4: Rainforests of the Guyana
  • Central Indian idea 3: Tigers and Elephants
  • Chachapoyan idea 7: Cloud Forests
  • Charruan idea 5: Resist Conquistadors
  • Chickasaw idea 3: Nighttime Raids
  • Divine idea 6: Turn the Other Cheek
  • Finnish idea 6: The White Death
  • Khivan idea 2: Deserts of Khiva
  • Kuban idea 5: Ngesh Dancing
  • Kurdish idea 1: Mountain Warriors
  • Mayan idea 6: Remote Isolation
  • Miao idea 6: Mountain Retreats
  • Najdi idea 4: Bedouin Raiders
  • Nubian idea 3: Warriors of the Sahara Desert
  • Romanian idea 3: Scorch the Lands and Poison the Wells
  • Sami idea 1: Land of the Midnight Sun
  • Shawnee idea 2: Dark and Bloody Ground
  • Siberian idea 1: Hunters of the North
  • Sinhalese idea 7: Sinhalese Guerilla Warfare
  • Sulawesi idea 7: Asymmetrical Resistance
  • Tirhuti idea 5: Riverine Landscape
  • Tsutsui idea 4: Mountain Warfare
  • Vindhyan idea 5: Untamed Lands
  • Yi idea 2: Deep in the Mountains
  • Fully Defensive
  • Armenian ambition
  • Influence-Quantity: Guerilla Warfare

Reinforcements[edit]

Armies which have taken casualties will gradually reinforce up to their full strength, provided there is enough available manpower.

Reinforce speed[edit]

The number of reinforcements that each regiment can receive in a month is:

\text{reinforcements per month} = 100\ \cdot\ \text{army maintenance factor}\ \cdot\ \text{local reinforcement rate}\ \cdot\ \left( 100% + \sum\text{reinforce speed modifiers} \right)
army maintenance factor
The army maintenance factor scales linearly with the position of the army maintenance slider. It is 50% if the slider is at the far left and 100% if the slider is at the far right.
local reinforcement rate
The local reinforcement rate is 100% in owned provinces, 10% in uncolonized provinces, and 50% otherwise, be it a neutral, subject, ally, enemy, or occupied province. If the army has a leader, each point of Land leader maneuver.png maneuver will increase the local reinforcement rate by +10% additively up to a maximum of 100%. An army that has been in battle will suffer a temporary −40% penalty to their local reinforcement rate for the current month if they are not in owned territory.
reinforce speed modifiers

The reinforce speed modifiers from ideas, policies, advisors etc. are summed up.

Reinforce speed is affected by the following:

Reinforce speed.png Conditions
+33% with a Advisor Quartermaster.png quartermaster as advisor
+33% with a General.png general with 'Battlefield Medic' trait
−25% is bankrupt

Ideas and policies:

Reinforce speed.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+33%
  • Defensive idea 6: Supply Trains
+30%
  • Austrian idea 7: Hofkriegsrat
+15%
  • Serbian traditions
  • Yaroslavlyian traditions
  • Yi idea 3: Chain of Zimo Domains
  • Tverian ambition
+10%
  • Tupi traditions
  • Khivan ambition
+5%
  • Siberian idea 6: Successful Raids

All values above can be seen or deduced from the tooltip over each army's total soldier count.

Reinforce cost[edit]

{ \text{reinforcement cost} = 0.4 \cdot \frac{ \text{arriving base reinforcements}}{1000} \cdot \text{base regiment cost} \cdot \left( 100\% + \sum\text{regiment cost modifiers} \right) \cdot \left( 100\% + \sum\text{land maintenance cost modifiers} \right) \cdot \left( 100\% + 1% \cdot \text{military technology} \right)}
  • The base reinforcements are up to 100 per Regiment, depending on army status and location.
  • Additional reinforcements from reinforcement speed modifiers don't cost extra.

Ideas and policies:

Reinforce cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
−25%
  • Uesugi idea 3: Kamakura Office

Mercenaries[edit]

Mercenary forces can serve as a supplement – or replacement – for a country's regular forces. They are only available in limited number. Mercenaries can be recruited in any controlled province (including occupied territory), unlike regular forces which require cored ownership or a subject province. Mercenaries are more expensive to maintain than regular forces. They are also quick to recruit and do not cost any manpower to build or reinforce.

Differences from regular forces[edit]

  • Recruitment time x0.25.
  • This is a multiplier, not a -75% modifier.
  • No manpower cost to recruit or reinforce.
  • More expensive in both cost and maintenance
  • No unlimited amount available

Mercenary support limit[edit]

The amount of mercenaries a nation can field is decided by their mercenary support limit introduced in patch 1.14 which replaced the mercenary pool. Every country has a base of 20 regiments[1] plus 30% of its regular land force limit. This sum is modified by the available mercenaries modifier.

\text{Mercenary support limit} = \left(20 + 30% \cdot \text{land force limit}\right) \cdot \left( 100% +  \sum\text{available mercenaries} \right)

Available mercenaries[edit]

The available amount of mercenaries is modified by:

Available mercenaries.png Conditions
+5.0% for raising war taxes for up to two years
+12.5% during the English War of the Roses.pngWar of the Roses disaster.

Ideas and policies:

Available mercenaries.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+50%
  • Burgundian idea 3: Promote the Estates General
  • Vijayanagar ambition
+25%
  • Administrative idea 5: Mercenary Recruitment
  • Plutocratic idea 1: Tradition of Payment
  • Quantity idea 5: Mercenary Contracts
  • Pskovian idea 5: The Knights Guard
  • Espionage-Quantity: The Mercenary Registration Act
+15%
  • Caucasian idea 2: Alan Mercenaries

Events:

Available mercenaries.png Event modifier Trigger Duration
+50% Swedish Mercenary Core Flag of Sweden Swedish event: “The Military Reforms of Gustavus Adolphus
Option: ‘Mercenary Core’
for the rest of the campaign.
+50% Mercenaries flocking to the standard Plutocratic ideas event: “Mercenaries flock to the Standard for 10 years.
+50% Glut of Mercenary Companies Administrative ideas event: “Glut of Mercenary Companies for 10 years.
−15% Curtailed Mercenaries Event: “Cruelty of Mercenaries
Option: ‘We should prevent this from happening in the future.’.
for 5 years.
+25% Scottish Mercenaries Thirty Years' War event: “Scottish Mercenaries for 30 years.

Note: The ‘available mercenaries’ modifiers affect also the maximum number of regiments for condottieri (only with Mare Nostrum.png Mare Nostrum DLC).

Mercenary cost.png Mercenary recruitment cost[edit]

Mercenary recruitment cost is computed as follows:

\text{Mercenary recruitment cost} = \text{base regiment cost} \cdot \left( 100\% + 50\% \text{ for being mercenary} + 1\% \text{ per mercenary regiment} + \sum\text{mercenary cost modifiers} \right)

The base regiment costs are:

Regiment Type Base Cost
Infantry 10 Gold Icon.png
Cavalry 25 Gold Icon.png
Artillery 30 Gold Icon.png
  • Mercenary cost can be affected by the following:
Mercenary cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
−25%
  • Administrative idea 1: Organized Mercenary Payments
  • +50% modifier to recruitment costs, with an additional +1% per mercenary regiment currently existing or being recruited.
  • Recruitment cost of mercenaries is affected by mercenary cost modifiers but is not affected by regiment cost modifiers.
  • -0.33% for every point of prestige. (+33% at -100 Prestige and -33% at +100 Prestige)
  • Unlike regular units, this mercenary recruitment cost does not affect actual mercenary maintenance cost.

Mercenary maintenance.png Mercenary maintenance cost[edit]

\text{Mercenary maintenance per month} = 0.02 \cdot \left( \text{regiment strength} \right) \cdot \left( \text{base regiment cost} \right) \cdot \left( 100\% + \sum\text{regiment cost modifiers} \right) \cdot \left( 100\% + 150\% \text{ for being mercenary} + \sum\text{mercenary maintenance modifiers} \right) \cdot \left( 100\% + 1% \cdot \text{military technology} \right)

Note that for mercenary maintenance:

  • There is a +150% modifier to mercenary maintenance.
  • This is affected by mercenary maintenance modifiers.
  • This is computed off the regular recruitment cost, not the mercenary recruitment cost.
  • Normal land maintenance doesn't have any impact on mercenary maintenance
  • Mercenary maintenance cost can be affected by the following:
Mercenary maintenance.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
−25%
  • Andhra traditions
  • Ansbach traditions
  • German traditions
  • Novgorodian traditions
  • Swedish traditions
  • Administrative idea 3: Benefits for Mercenaries
  • Innovative idea 2: Pragmatism
  • Aragonese idea 1: Mercenary Princes
  • Ashanti idea 3: The Akan Coalition
  • Ayutthayan idea 3: Foreign Mercenaries
  • Burgundian idea 2: The Compagnies d'Ordonnance
  • Byzantine idea 1: Regulations for Mercenaries
  • Client State idea 6: Recruitment Centers
  • Daimyo idea 5: Wandering Ronin
  • Danziger idea 4: Hanseatic League Member
  • Gutnish idea 2: Invite Mercenaries to Visby
  • Huron idea 2: Hire Allied Warriors
  • Italian idea 2: Italian Condottieri
  • Kurdish idea 5: Kurdish Mercenaries
  • Milanese idea 4: The Age of the Condottieri
  • Navarran idea 2: Navarrese Company
  • Pomeranian idea 5: Mercenary Contracts
  • Savoyard idea 3: Mercenary Tradition
  • Serbian idea 6: Mercenary Armies
  • Smolenskian idea 3: Western Mercenaries
  • South Indian idea 4: South Indian Mercenaries
  • Swahili idea 5: Recruit the Unbelievers
  • Swiss idea 2: Swiss Mercenaries
  • Theodorian idea 1: Principate Guards
  • Thomondian idea 4: Foreign Contracts
  • Tuscan idea 2: Condottieri
  • Wallachian idea 3: Mercenary Guard
  • Yaroslavlyian idea 4: Siberian Mercenaries
  • Zambezi idea 1: Warrior Culture
  • Hessian ambition
  • Espionage-Quantity: The Mercenary Registration Act
−20%
  • Pskovian idea 3: Balt Mercenaries
−15%
  • Caucasian idea 2: Alan Mercenaries
−10%
  • National idea 3: Regulated Contracts
"Trading in" bonus mercenary maintenance modifier
Trading in cloth Mercenary maintenance.png −15% Mercenary maintenance
  • Additionally, raising War Taxes gives a -20% land/navy maintenance for two years.

Strategy[edit]

  • The main drawback to mercenaries relative to regular forces is their higher maintenance cost
  • Countries with high income but little manpower will benefit from mercenaries.
  • Since maintenance has to be paid during peacetime but manpower does not, mercenaries make a poor standing force except for the richest countries.
  • Mercenaries can be readied for war on short notice due to their fast recruitment speed. Even mercenary Artillery only takes a month to recruit without other modifiers. This allows for an army that can turn the tide of a close battle.
  • For a set of desired mercenaries, recruiting the more expensive mercenaries first will cost less than recruiting them last, especially if exceeding force limits.
  • It's much preferred to use manpower to recruit artillery and cavalry, and use mercenaries to cover the infantry regiments. Infantry take the most casualties and are much less expensive than artillery or cavalry. For example, in a 20 regiment army consisting of 10/4/6 infantry/cavalry/artillery, it will cost less than 40% more to use all merc infantry, while reducing non-attrition, non-overrun manpower losses by roughly 90%, whereas an all mercenary army would cost 1.5 times as much to maintain.

Movement[edit]

Amphibious landings[edit]

Amphibious landings from transport fleets will always take 12 days[1] to complete if moving into non-hostile territory, and 36 days[1] if moving into hostile territory. Boarding a friendly transport from land will always take 12 days as well. These times are reduced by the maneuver rating of leaders.

Three way battles[edit]

If an army enters a province in which two hostile forces are engaged in combat, it will wait on the sidelines and engage the victor once it emerges from battle. The victor from the first battle will now act as an attacker, and will suffer all terrain penalties appropriate for the province. On the other hand, if only one of them is hostile, the newly arriving army will join the battle on the other side even if the non-enemy army is fighting in a different war.

Terra incognita[edit]

During peace time, only armies led by a conquistador may enter terra incognita provinces and explore them. In war time, all armies may enter terra incognita provinces if that province is controlled by hostile forces. If a terra incognita province is revealed while an army is attempting to move into it, its movement progress will immediately be updated, which can result in it teleporting into the province.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt (Static modifiers).
  3. The 2% result from LAND_MAINTENANCE_FACTOR which is set by /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua to 0.25 divided by 12 and round after 3 digits.
  4. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: LAND_TECH_MAINTENANCE_IMPACT = 0.01
Warfare
Land warfare ArmyLand unitsDisciplineManpower
Naval warfare NavyNaval unitsSailors
Other concepts Casus belliWar exhaustionMilitary traditionLeadersAlliance