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Kingdom rankPoland
Primary culture
Polish (West Slavic)

Capital province
Krakow (262)

Elective MonarchyGovernment monarchy.png

State religion

Technology group
EasternEastern technology group
Polish ideas
Traditions.png Traditions:
−10% Cavalry cost
+1 Max promoted cultures

Production efficiency.png Promote the Folwark System

+10% Production efficiency

Stability cost modifier.png Nihil Novi

−10% Stability cost modifier
−0.02% Monthly war exhaustion

National manpower modifier.png Piechota Wybraniecka

+25% National manpower modifier
+10% Infantry combat ability

Cavalry combat ability.png Winged Hussars

+33% Cavalry combat ability
+10% Cavalry to infantry ratio

Regiment cost.png Wojsko Komputowe

−10% Regiment cost

Discipline.png Found the Foreign Section

+5% Discipline

Morale of armies.png Focus on Field Defense

+15% Morale of armies

Idea bonus.png Ambition:

+3 Tolerance of heretics
For the region, see Poland (region).

Poland (Polish: Polska) is a considerable power in eastern Europe with the potential to grow into a regional or even global power. However, there are tremendous challenges that must be faced at every stage of history if Poland is to survive at all.

In the final months of 1444, Poland has no king. Since 1385, it has always been a Jagiellon that has ruled Poland and Flag of Lithuania Lithuania in personal union. Yet with the death of King Władysław III in battle against the Ottomans in Varna on 10 November 1444, the fate of the Polish-Lithuanian union hangs in the balance. Fortunately, Władysław's brother, Kazimierz IV, is the Grand Duke of Lithuania. By persuading the Polish nobility to accept his rule, Kazimierz can become King and restore the mighty union. Or Poland may deny this union and seek its own path.

The territory of Poland lies upon the great northern European plain, a vast flatland conducive for the use of mass cavalry. Lacking natural geographic borders from which to defend, Poland will inevitably be the target for expansion and conquest by sufficiently powerful neighbors. Among these threats is the nemesis of both Poland and Lithuania, the Flag of Teutonic Order Teutonic Order. Though humbled by defeat in recent years, the Order still holds the Baltic hostage, and with it, the trade to sustain an empire. Beyond the Baltic Sea, the Scandinavian nations fight for dominance over one another. A champion of the north could pose the next threat to Baltic trade. To the south lies Flag of Hungary Hungary, a rival powerful enough to disrupt Polish plans to crush the Order and able to vie for trade in Kraków. The Flag of Ottomans Ottomans are far to the South but their ambitions are far too great to remain there.To the east is the vast Eurasian Steppe, long the source of massive horde invasions. Soon the nation of Flag of Muscovy Muscovy will set its sights on Poland's eastern provinces as the iron fist of Flag of Russia Russia. To the west Poland borders the small German states of Flag of Pomerania Pomerania and Flag of Brandenburg Brandenburg. While the German states are divided and the Emperor lacks power, the west will not present a credible threat to Poland's ambitions elsewhere. However, a powerful series of Emperors may gradually bring unity to the Holy Roman Empire, potentially creating a superpower capable of bending the whole of Europe to its will. Poland may also have to contend with the rise of Flag of Prussia Prussia who could prove a major thorn in the side.

Creating the Flag of Commonwealth Commonwealth could begin an era of relative peace and stability in the region, but maintaining the unity of a multicultural and religiously diverse population will be a major challenge in itself. This is especially true when the Protestant Reformation stirs in the west, the rising Ottoman Empire expanding ever closer in the south, and an united Orthodox Russia rises in the east. Poland is in the crosshairs of three major powers that present a existential risk to the kingdom. Fortunately Poland is position for some powerful allies as well especially Austria and France.


Main article: Polish missions

Poland's missions are focused on the integration of its vassals, maintaining friendly relations with Lithuania, and the subjugation and conquest of its neighboring rivals: the Flag of Teutonic Order Teutonic Order, the Flag of Ottomans Ottomans and Flag of Russia Russia.


Main article: Polish events

Poland's events are heavily focused on the internal structure and stability of the Polish state, characterized by a long term struggle to assert control over the nobles of the Sejm, as well as the integration of the Duchy of Mazovia and Grand Duchy of Lithuania into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Outside of its borders, Poland is faced with events that characterize the tensions between the Ottomans and an independent Sweden. A small number of events address Poland's position at the heart of Europe, right along the border of the Holy Roman shift towards Protestantism.


If either Lithuania or Poland leads a union with the other (most likely Poland via event), and have fully integrated Mazovia, then they can unite and form the Commonwealth.

Execute decision.pngMove Capital to Warsaw

With the incorporation of the duchy of Mazovia Warsaw has become the seat of the Sejm. Perhaps it would be wise to move the seat of royal government there so we can work better with the nobility?

Potential Requirements

The country:

  • is Flag of Poland Poland or the Flag of Commonwealth Commonwealth.
  • owns Warszawa (257).
  • does not have Warszawa (257) as capital.
  • has not yet made this decision.

This country is not at war.
Warszawa (257) is a core province of this country.


Warszawa (257):

  • becomes the capital of this country.
  • gains Tax Base Icon.png 1 base tax.
  • gains Production.png 1 base production.
  • gains Local manpower modifier.png 1 base manpower.

This country gains Prestige.png20 prestige.

Execute decision.pngForm Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Poland)

Replace the personal union between Poland and Lithuania with a real union, welding the two countries together into one powerful state, capable of withstanding our enemies.
Potential Requirements

The Flag of Commonwealth Commonwealth does not exist.
This country:

Flag of Lithuania Lithuania:

  • exists.
  • is controlled by the AI.
  • has never been controlled by a human player.

If the country is AI-controlled then it:


Flag of Poland Poland:

Flag of Lithuania Lithuania:

  • has never been controlled by a human player.
  • has 47 cities or fewer.[1]

Flag of Mazovia Mazovia does not exist.


The country:

A random owned province with Polish culture:

  • gains Tax Base Icon.png1 base tax.

If the country:

  • is a member of the Holy Roman Empire but not the emperor or an elector
    • then all its provinces are removed from the HRE.
  • is a duchy
    • then it becomes a Kingdom rank kingdom.
  • does not have Lithuanian as an accepted culture
    • then it gains Lithuanian as an accepted culture.

Execute decision.pngEnforce Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Poland and Lithuania has a common history of close cooperation and through the Union of Vilnius and Radom our respective aristocracies where integrated with one another in 1413. While fate has since then brought us apart our interests remain closely aligned and now that we control both the core of the Lithuanian and Polish lands it is perhaps time we let our old friends become stakeholders in a joint state.
Potential Requirements

The Flag of Commonwealth Commonwealth does not exist.
This country:

  • is Flag of Poland Poland or Flag of Lithuania Lithuania.
  • has not yet formed the Commonwealth.

Poland and Lithuania are not in a personal union together.
If the country is AI-controlled then

  • it can not be a custom nation.
  • either Poland or Lithuania does not exist.

This country:

Flag of Mazovia Mazovia does not exist.


The country:

A random owned province with the country's primary culture:

  • gains Tax Base Icon.png1 base tax.

If the country:

  • is a member of the Holy Roman Empire but not the emperor or an elector
    • then all its provinces are removed from the HRE.
  • is a duchy
    • then it becomes a Kingdom rank kingdom.
  • does not have Polish as an accepted culture
    • then it gains Polish as an accepted culture.
  • does not have Lithuanian as an accepted culture
    • then it gains Lithuanian as an accepted culture.


If Flag of Poland Poland is destroyed and the Flag of Commonwealth Commonwealth does not exist then Flag of Danzig Danzig or any nation with Polish or Schlesian primary culture can reform it.

Execute decision.pngForm Polish Nation

The kingdom that the Piasts once worked so hard to reunify is now divided and without a king. We must strive to unite the Polish people and create a Polish nation to take the place of the kingdom that once was.

Potential Requirements

The country:

If the country is AI controlled then

  • it must have at least 6 cities.
  • it can not be a former colonial nation.

The Flag of Commonwealth Commonwealth does not exist.


Flag of Poland Poland does not exist.
The country:


The country:

  • changes to Flag of Poland Poland.
  • changes primary culture to Polish.
  • gains permanent claims on all provinces of Poland (region) that are not already owned.
  • gains Prestige.png 25 prestige.
  • gets the modifier “Increased Centralization” for 20 years with the following effects:
    • Autonomy.png−0.05 monthly autonomy change,
    • National unrest.png+1 national unrest.

If Flag of Poland Poland:


Neighbours and position[edit]

In 1444, Poland finds itself in a precarious position, being the overlord of two small vassals and with but one friend in the world (Lithuania). To the North and the Northeast lies the monastic orders of the Teutons and the Livonians. To the South are Hungary and the Balkan states of Flag of Bosnia Bosnia and Flag of Serbia Serbia, each with their own interests but likely more interested in the great monster of the South, the Ottomans. The West is formed of the Holy Roman Empire, with Flag of Bohemia Bohemia, Brandenburg, and Pomerania as direct neighbours, though only the first of the three will provide much of a long term issue.

Even further North lies a formidable force, the Kalmar union, led by Flag of Denmark Denmark its two lesser partners, Flag of Norway Norway and Flag of Sweden Sweden, as well as Denmark's vassal, Holstein. The East lies Poland's only refuge and biggest ally: Lithuania, and just a little further, its greatest rival: Muscovy/Russia. The importance of each of these states will depend not only their interactions with Poland, but also between themselves, for this region contains, and will contain, many overlapping interests.

After 25 June 1447, Poland's situation looks a lot better, since it already leads a personal union with Lithuania. Starting earlier, an event will prompt a decision to either form the Union or reject the Union in favor of a local noble taking the throne, usually with average legitimacy and above average monarch attributes (see: Polish events).

A good starting date if not aiming for achievements is 1 January 1448, since from this date on Lithuania owns the province of Rzhev (formerly owned by Tver) for exactly a year, before Tver regains ownership of the province. Also, if the player changes the start date one day forward, Poland will start with Hungary in union.

The Polish subject states, Mazovia and Moldavia[edit]

Mazovia and Moldavia start off as Polish subject states, Mazovia a vassal and Moldavia a march. Integrating Mazovia as soon as possible is advisable, as it will allow the decision to move the capital, granting free development, as well as freeing up a relationship slot. Similar reasoning applies to Moldavia, however their march status will need to be revoked which should be done at a time that the relationship hit is manageable. After integration, the player also receives the event "The Inheritance of Mazovia", allowing the player to cheaply develop Warsaw to a comparable level to Krakow and other European capitals.


Lithuania is Poland's most steadfast ally, owing to the historical friendship between the two nations, and Poland getting an event to form a personal union over them. This event usually fires within the first three years, so it is highly advisable for the player not to attempt any wars until the union is formed. Once the union is formed there is also a decision to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth which instantly inherits Lithuania. For this reason, attempting to manually integrate them is strongly not advised. However, if the player decides to manually integrate Lithuania, keep in mind that Lithuania must have fewer provinces than Poland to be integrated.

Teutonic Order[edit]

The Teutonic Order usually ally with the Livonian Order, and are usually the first target for the Polish expansion, owing to the many missions that Poland get encouraging conflict, as well as the Teutonic Army being considerably smaller. A difficult situation may appear if the Teutonic Order has had allied with one of the big rivals of Poland; these typically being Hungary, Denmark, or more rarely, Muscovy. Waging war against said powerful states is a sure way for defeat, or at most a Pyrrhic victory. If the Teutons end up with large allies, you should wait for a good opportunity, typically when they are engaged in other wars. The size of the Teutonic Order means that it will take more than one war for Poland to completely consume them. Therefore, the player should typically try to take Tuchola, Danzig, and Ostroda in the first war as these provinces are of particular strategic value.

Livonian Order[edit]

The Livonian Order usually allies with the Teutonic Order and Riga and rivals Novgorod. They start with total development such that they may not be annexed in a single war. In a war with the Teutonic Order it is thus wise to take a province or two so Livonian Order later can be vassalized or annexed in one war. You should try to give Lithuania the area of Curonia, as it is less developed than the more important area of Livonia. It is not advisable to vassalize the Livonians as owning their provinces will let you fabricate claims on important areas in Scandinavia and Russia. They also are the key to controlling Riga, a high development province that will help give you control of the Baltic Sea trade node.


Brandenburg usually rivals the Teutonic Order and often ends up at war with the Teutons one way or another. Brandenburg can sometimes be a useful ally to have, but also tend to drag Poland into a large number of wars within the Holy Roman Empire. Especially in the early game, when Poland's relationship slots are at a premium, it can be wise to saving them for larger allies than Brandenburg, such as Austria or France. Due to being a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, expanding into Brandenburg can be challenging, as the Holy Roman emperor will likely be called in, and they are capable of calling in all of their allies also. This can mean that waiting until the Emperor is already embroiled in a taxing war, perhaps against a France or Burgundy who are also attacking into the Empire, can help.


Pomerania owns the North-East German coast, and similar to Brandenburg, often rival the Teutonic Order, and typically try to take advantage of a Polish players conflict with the Teutonic order in order to expand. Again as with Brandenburg, expanding into Pomerania can be challenging, as the Holy Roman emperor will likely be called in, and they are capable of calling in all of their allies also. This can mean that waiting until the Emperor is already embroiled in a taxing war, perhaps against a France or Burgundy who are also attacking into the Empire, can help. It is worth noting that Brandenburg often rivals Pomerania and will almost always receive a mission to annex Pomerania.


Although not a prince, Hungary usually forms an alliance with Austria, and can also, by event, fall under a personal union with them. The means that Polish expansion into Hungary is not as straightforward a process as otherwise might be imagined. Hungary is often rivals with Bohemia, Venice, and the Ottomans, and so an alliance with one of these nations, can prove wise although an alliance with the Ottomans is not terribly likely, as they also often rival Poland.

Opening Moves[edit]

The first moves a Poland player should be to take to the mission to improve Papal relations, marry Lithuania, Mazovia, Moldavia, and if Austria is rivalled with them, Bohemia. Once the diplomats get back start improving relations with Mazovia and the Papal States. Use your last diplomat to build a spy network in the Teutonic Order. It is up to the player to chose what they should use their last relationship slot for, but is is typically advisable to ally either Bohemia, Austria, or Denmark.

The Ottomans[edit]

Although it is very likely that Poland will form an alliance with Austria and/or Bohemia, it would require too much of an effort to keep both of these alliances throughout the game. Since Austria and Bohemia have conflicting interests in the HRE, they are bound to end up in a war sooner or later. Hopefully, though, these alliances last long enough to take out one of the two great threats to Eastern Europe: The Ottomans.

Poland initially cannot declare war on the Ottomans directly, unless Moldavia fabricate claims against them. Setting the Ottomans as hostile (if not rivalled), and the provinces of Silistre and Kirkkilise as of vital interest to Poland should help encourage them to do so. The Ottomans usually ally Tunis, however Tunis will probably have to transport units into the war by sea. Between Poland, with Lithuania in a union, and a strong ally, war with the Ottomans should not be too difficult. Keep in mind that early game, from military technology level 5 until 19, the Ottomans have superior infantry to western nations. Also the Ottomans start with a great leader and will quickly tech up. So striking before the Ottomans unlock military technology 4, crippling them before they gain this advantage is advisable. The less the Ottomans expand into the Balkans and Anatolia, the better for Poland. It would also be very helpful to Poland, to wait until the Ottomans are engaged in a major war, such as with the Mamluks, Qara Qoyunlu, or Hungary. When ending the war, keep in mind that the provinces taken will likely be orthodox. The player should therefore either give them to Moldavia, or consider releasing Bulgaria. Releasing Bulgaria is more advisable as the player can use their cores to start another war with the Ottomans.


In the beginning of the game, Muscovy is barely more than a strong regional power. However, by the end of the 15th century, Muscovy can quickly become the strongest power in Eastern Europe. Therefore, it is strongly advisable to knock Muscovy out while they are still in the crib. This can be accomplished early on by taking their key provinces such as Moscow, Novgorod, or Tver. You should try to attack while they are attacking other enemies, such as the Great Horde or Kazan. If possible, it is strongly recommended to vassalize Novgorod and use their cores to quickly take over Muscovite territory.


If the player wishes to gain a major advantage in the early game, it is possible to gain Bohemia as a Junior Partner very early. This can be accomplished by restarting until Bohemia is rivaled with Austria. Once this condition is met, the player should marry Bohemia and wait until Bohemia either gets your dynasty on the throne, or they get a local dynasty. If they get a local dynasty, restart. Once they get your dynasty on the throne, claim their throne and immediately declare war. They should not be protected by the emperor, Austria, as the emperor never protects rivals.

Polish achievements[edit]

Poland can into space icon
As Poland, reach the maximum level in all technologies (32).

Winged Hussars icon
Have Winged Hussars as your active unit with more than +50% cavalry combat ability.

One King to Rule! icon
As Poland, become an absolutist monarchy, abolishing the Sejm.
Country guides

Central African technology group Central African.png Mutapa.png Mutapa
East African technology group East African.png Kilwa.png Kilwa
Muslim technology group Muslim.png The Mamluks.png MamluksTunis.png Tunis
West African technology group West African.png Mali.png Mali Mossi.png Mossi

Eastern technology group Eastern.png Jerusalem.png Jerusalem
Muslim technology group Muslim.png Arabia.png Arabia Hejaz.png Hejaz Khiva.png Khiva Mughals.png Mughals Oman.png Oman Persia.png Persia Shammar.png Shammar
Indian technology group Indian.png Assam.png Assam Bahmanis.png Bahmanis Bengal.png Bengal Ceylon.png Ceylon Gujarat.png Gujarat Jaunpur.png Jaunpur Orissa.png Orissa Vijayanagar.png Vijayanagar
Chinese technology group Chinese.png Bali.png Bali Brunei.png Brunei Dai Viet.png Dai Viet Japan.png Japan Khmer.png Khmer Korea.png Korea Lan Xang.png Lan Xang Majapahit.png Majapahit Malaya.png Malaya Pagarruyung.png Pagarruyung Pasai.png Pasai Qing.png Qing Sulu.png Sulu Sunda.png Sunda
Nomadic technology group Nomadic.png Jianzhou.png Jianzhou Manchu.png Manchu Qara Qoyunlu.png Qara Qoyunlu Timurids.png Timurids Uzbek.png Uzbek

Western technology group Western.png United States.png United States
Mesoamerican technology group Mesoamerican.png Maya.png Maya
North American technology group North American.png Cherokee.png Cherokee Creek.png Creek Huron.png Huron Iroquois.png Iroquois Pueblo.png Pueblo

Andean technology group Andean.png Cusco.png Cusco Muisca.png Muisca
South American technology group South American.png Mapuche.png Mapuche

  1. Lithuania starts with 38 provinces, so this is true unless they have gained 10 more.