Ming

From Europa Universalis 4 Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

This article may contain outdated information that is inaccurate for the current version of the game. It was last updated for Vanilla.

Ming
Ming.png
Primary culture
Han (East Asian)

Capital province
Beijing (1816)

Government
Celestial EmpireGovernment monarchy.png

State religion
ConfucianConfucianism.png

Tech group
ChineseChinese.png
Ideas and traditions

Traditions.png Traditions:

+10% Provincial trade power modifier
-10% Idea cost

Defensiveness.png Repair the Great Wall

+15% Fort Defense

Discipline.png The Revival of the Training camps

+2.5% Discipline

Stability cost modifier.png Inward Perfection

-10% Stability cost modifier

Production efficiency.png Repair the Yellow River Dykes

+10% Production efficiency

Global trade income modifier.png Restore the Salt Monopoly

+10% National trade income modifier

Global tax modifier.png Bring in the Head Tax

+10% National tax modifier

Global manpower modifier.png Create the Eight Banners

+50% National manpower modifier

Idea bonus.png Bonus:

+30% Better relations over time

The Ming Dynasty ruled China for around 300 years, from 1368 until the Manchu conquest in 1644 (founding the Qing Dynasty). The Ming have traditionally been held as one of the high points of China’s long history, Chinese art and literature flourished, the government reinvigorated the ancient system of civil service examinations to seek new talent and great trading voyages that drew tribute from as far away as Africa.

By the game’s start in 1444, however, these merchant adventures have stopped and China has turned inward. The scientific progress of the Song Dynasty has slowed, and the rise of an anti-trade faction of bureaucrats has weakened the power of the eunuchs that championed this expansion. As will be found, managing these factions will be one of the great tests for players as a Chinese ruler.

Strategically, Ming is in a good position. It has almost limitless manpower and can field vast armies. There are no neighbors in a position to do it any serious damage, and even a coalition of four or five of its neighbors will find it difficult to put a dent in the Emperor’s glory. Only the rise of a continental power on the western steppes is a real issue... until the Europeans show up.

Ming’s biggest challenges will be internal. Her size means that the grand armies will need to be stationed throughout the empire, as it can take a while to march from one end to the other. Ming’s history of division and independent warlords means that a mass rebellion could lead to the secession of the Shan, Xi, or Zhou rival kingdoms.

For the Ming, stability is paramount; it guarantees smooth sailing and the blessings of the Mandate of Heaven.

Mandate of Heaven[edit]

Ming has a unique government form called Celestial Empire, reflecting the Chinese belief that a well-governed kingdom was evidence of divine sanction and blessing, whereas a poorly governed or tyrannical one was evidence that the Emperor could be deposed.

The Celestial Empire alone gives the Ming a 3 point reduction to their revolt risk. But as long as Ming is not in negative stability and the ruler has a decent legitimacy, they gain the Mandate of Heaven, which gives a 10% discount to increasing stability, and another 5 point reduction revolt risk. But if stability or legitimacy drops, Ming gets the punishing Mandate of Heaven Lost modifier, which causes +50% stability costs, +5% revolt risk, and -50% to taxes.

If Ming westernizes, it will suffer from the Mandate of Heaven Lost modifier until westernization is complete. Upon completion, both triggered modifiers as well as the faction system go away forever.

Factions[edit]

Three factions compete for power and influence in the Ming Empire, each with a governing focus:

  • The Bureaucrats on government administration
  • The Eunuchs focus on trade, diplomacy & naval affairs
  • The Temple' faction on military affairs

Ming is affected by penalties because of its sprawling Chinese bureaucracy; dependent on the dominant faction is in power, some of these penalties can be reduced or reversed.

The faction and government system ceases when Ming westernizes, and the country transforms into a feudal monarchy.

Enuchs influence.pngEunuch Faction[edit]

If the Eunuch Faction is dominant, it removes the penalties on trade, diplomacy, technology and advisors. Diplomatic power.pngDiplomatic power is required to increase their influence. With this faction in power, Ming has a net penalty to technology cost of only +35%, setting them well ahead of their Asian neighbors and only slightly behind the Ottoman tech group.

Full list of effects:

  • Merchants.pngMerchants: +1
  • Global trade power.pngGlobal trade power: +50%
  • Tradeview income.pngNational trade income modifier: +50%
  • Advisor cost.pngAdvisor costs: -100%
  • Technology cost.pngTechnology cost: -75%
  • Diplomatic upkeep.pngDiplomatic relations: +4

Temples influence.pngTemple Faction[edit]

If the Temple Faction is dominant, it offsets penalties associated with war and peacemaking such as penalties to troop discipline, army forcelimits, diplomatic cost of unjustified demands in a peace treaty, and the cost of core creation in newly acquired territory. Since the Temple Faction provides no relief from the financial penalties of Inward Perfection, it is a wise to accumulate a large war chest in peacetime to sustain the empire while at war. Military power.pngMilitary power is needed to strengthen their influence.

Full list of effects:

  • Manpower recovery speed.pngManpower recovery speed: +50%
  • Land forcelimit.pngLand forcelimits modifier: +50%
  • War exhaustion.pngMonthly war exhaustion: -0.10
  • Discipline.pngDiscipline: +25%
  • Core creation.pngCore-creation cost: -100%
  • Unjustified demands.pngUnjustified demands: -50%

Bureaucrats influence.pngBureaucrat Faction[edit]

If the Bureaucrat Faction is dominant, it removes the penalties on tax income, the cost of buildings, the cost of increasing stability, and the price of units, in addition to increasing the chance of producing an heir. This makes it advantageous to implement a large building program by saving up funds and Monarch Power and switch to Bureaucrat rule to initiate construction. Administrative power.pngAdministrative power is used to boost their influence.

Full list of effects:

  • Build cost.pngBuild cost: -100%
  • Global tax modifier.pngNational tax modifier: +50%
  • Stability cost modifier.pngStability cost modifier: -50%
  • Advisor pool.pngPossible advisors: +1
  • Heir chance.pngIncreased chance of new heir: +50%
  • Religious unity.pngReligious unity: +50%

Missions[edit]

Military power.pngRestore the old frontier

Ever since the Han Emperors the people of Dai Vet have recognized the mandate from heaven that the great Emperor has. It is time to remind them once again.


Mission trigger.png
Triggers
Acquisition conditions
  • Ming:
    • Is not a subject nation
    • Is not the lesser partner in a union
    • Is not allied with Dai Viet
    • The Temple Faction is in power
  • Dai Viet:
    • Is a neighbor of Ming
    • Is in our Ming's religion group
    • Has less provinces than Ming
    • Owns Thang Long
Acquisition chance
  • Base weight: 1000
  • Ming has less than 0 opinion of Dai Viet
Success conditions
  • Dai Viet does not exist
  • Ming owns Thang Long
Failure conditions
  • Any of the following:
    • Ming:
      • Is a subject nation
      • Is the lesser partner in a union
      • The Temple Faction is not in power
    • Dai Viet:
      • Does not exist
      • Is not in Ming's religion group

Mission effect.png
Effects
Reward
  • GainArmy tradition.png10 army tradition
  • Gain 1 stability
Temporary effects
  • Ming gains a claim on Thang Long

Military power.pngDefend Korea

The Japanese have invaded Korea and are threatening to turn the Southern tip of the peninsula into a base for their hated Wokou pirates. We must ensure that they do not gain a foothold.


Mission trigger.png
Triggers
Acquisition conditions
  • Ming:
    • Is not a subject nation
    • Is not the lesser partner in a union
    • Is at war with Japan
  • Korea:
    • Is at war with Japan
    • Is a neighbor of Ming
Acquisition chance
  • Base weight: 1000
  • Ruler of Ming has at least 4 military skill: x2
Success conditions
  • Ming is at peace with Japan
  • Japan does not own any provinces in the Korean Region
Failure conditions
  • Either Ming is:
    • Not at war with Japan
    • A vassal
    • The lesser partner in a union

Mission effect.png
Effects
Reward
  • Ming gains a claim on all provinces in the Korean Region
Temporary effects
  • None

Diplomatic power.pngColonize Taiwan

The island of Taiwan is sparsely populated by uncivilized savages, we should open these lands up for Chinese settlement.


Mission trigger.png
Triggers
Acquisition conditions
  • Ming:
    • Owns Nanjing
    • Has at least 1 colonist
    • Has at least 1 port
  • Either:
    • The faction system is disabled
    • The Eunuch Faction is in power
  • Taiwan is uncolonized
Acquisition chance
  • Base weight: 1000
  • Ruler of Ming has at least 4 administrative skill: x2
Success conditions
  • Ming owns Taiwan
Failure conditions
  • Any of the following:
    • All of the following:
      • The Eunuch Faction is not in power
      • The faction system is enabled
    • All of the following:
      • Taiwan is colonized
      • Ming:
        • Does not own Taiwan
        • Has no ports

Mission effect.png
Effects
Reward
  • GainPrestige.png3 prestige
Temporary effects
  • None

This mission is also available to the Manchu.

Diplomatic power.pngAdvance to the Black River

The sacred Black River, although we have tales that some uncivilized peoples call it the Amur River, is a fitting frontier for us. We should establish settlements to advance our frontier.


Mission trigger.png
Triggers
Acquisition conditions
  • Ming:
    • Has at least 1 colonist
    • Has at least 1 port
  • Either:
    • The faction system is disabled
    • The Eunuch Faction is in power
  • Deren:
    • Is uncolonized
    • Is known to Ming
Acquisition chance
  • Base weight: 1000
  • Ruler of Ming has at least 4 administrative skill: x2
Success conditions
  • Ming owns Deren
Failure conditions
  • Any of the following:
    • All of the following:
      • The Eunuch Faction is not in power
      • The faction system is enabled
    • All of the following:
      • Deren is colonized
      • Ming:
        • Does not own Deren
        • Has no ports

Mission effect.png
Effects
Reward
  • GainPrestige.png3 prestige
Temporary effects
  • None

This mission is also available to the Manchu.

Diplomatic power.pngDiscover India

Although most people seem content with the explanation that our silks go off to barbarian lands some of our more curious eunuchs wish to know more. They are asking for support to send an expedition to this India place.


Mission trigger.png
Triggers
Acquisition conditions
  • Ming:
    • Has the idea Quest for the New World
    • Has not discovered the Indian Coast
    • Has at least 1 port
Acquisition chance
Success conditions
  • The Indian Coast is known to Ming
Failure conditions
  • Ming:
    • Does not have the idea Quest for the New World
    • Has no ports

Mission effect.png
Effects
Reward
  • GainGold Icon.png50 ducats
  • Ming gains the modifier Colonial Enthusiasm for 5.14 years, giving:
    • Colonist placement chance.png+5% Colonist placement chance
    • Global colonial growth.png+25 Colonial growth
    • Colonist time.png-33% Colonist travel time
Temporary effects
  • None

Considering that Ming already knows of India in 1444, this mission is mostly unobtainable.

Events[edit]

Main article: Ming events

The events for Ming China are a mixture of religious, reformation, and political events, from "The Arrival of Jesuits" to "The Closure of China" and "Qi Jiguang's Army Reforms". They will affect the country in many diverse ways, bringing factions in and out of favor and adding extra flavor.

Decisions[edit]

Form Chinese Nation[edit]

Potential:

  • Country is Ming
  • Has Factions
  • Qing does not exist

Allow:

  • Has Western Tech Group and finished Westernizing
  • Is not a vassal
  • Is not at war
  • Owns Beijing
  • Has core on Beijing

Effect:

  • Random owned province:
    • Gains 1 base tax
  • Adds the modifier "Increased Centralization" for 1 years:
    • +10% global tax modifier
    • +1 revolt risk
  • Removes Factions:
    • Temple Faction
    • Enuch Faction
    • Bureaucrat Faction
  • Changes government type to Despotic Monarchy

Repair of the Great Wall[edit]

Potential:

  • Does not have the country modifier "Reparations of the Great Wall"
  • Any of the following:
    • Country is Manchu
    • Country is Ming
  • Does not have the idea Repair the Great Wall
  • Owns Taiyuan
  • Owns Hebei
  • Owns Baoding
  • Owns Datong
  • Owns Lanzhou
  • Owns Shaanxi
  • Owns Yumen
  • Owns Alxa
  • Owns Beijing

Allow:

  • Any of the following:
    • Has the Army Reformer advisor
    • Ruler's military skill is at least 3
  • Has at least 1 years worth of income
  • Has at least 50 administrative power
  • Has at least 50 military power

Effect:

  • Modifies treasury by -1 years worth of income
  • Changes administrative power stored by -50
  • Changes military power stored by -50
  • Adds the modifier "Reparations of the Great Wall" for the rest of the campaign:
    • +25% fort defense modifier

Construct the Forbidden City[edit]

Potential:

  • Any of the following:
    • Country is Manchu
    • Country is Ming
  • Any of the following:
    • Capital is Beijing
    • Capital is Nanjing
  • Does not have the country modifier "The Forbidden City"

Allow:

  • Is not at war
  • Any of the following:
    • Has a Statesman with a skill of at least 3
    • Ruler's administrative skill is at least 3
  • Any of the following:
    • The Bureaucrat Faction is in power
    • The faction system is disabled
  • Stability is at least 3
  • Has at least 1.0 years worth of income
  • Has at least 50 administrative power

Effect:

  • Modifies treasury by -1.0 years worth of income
  • Changes administrative power stored by -50
  • Adds the modifier "The Forbidden City" for the rest of the campaign:
    • -10% stability cost modifier
    • +1 prestige

Strategy[edit]

Ming is a Celestial Empire, a unique government type that reduces revolt risk and possesses unique mechanics, like the Factions mechanics and the Mandate of Heaven modifiers.

If you wish, and this is pretty gamey, you can use a tactic to get rid of Inward Perfection, but keep the faction system. This is extremely useful, for example because you get 90% off cores that go in to effect instantly. Anyway: the way you do this is by attacking Delhi, taking Roh, and vassalizing Delhi. Start annexing them whenever, just make sure you're reasonably close to full annexation. Then, release all of the three Chinese vassals, change your capital to Roh, sell Beijing to one of your vassals, and then become bankrupt however. Just make sure that you are an OPM when you go bankrupt. This will give you the Sunni religion and Khorsani culture. Then, annex Delhi and form the Mughal empire. When the next month ticks you should lose Inward Perfection and get Indian units, but still keep the faction system. This makes you extremely powerful. All credit for this goes to DDRJake.

[This no longer works]

The Faction System penalizes Ming in many aspects but is in actuality a double-edged sword, mostly due to the tech discount benefit provided by the Eunuch's Faction. Within a short while, Ming is able to pull ahead of its neighbours technologically, allowing it to impose its might on the surrounding region. With the Eunuch's in control, Ming need only pay 135% of the base cost for each level of technology and the increased trade income and reduced advisor costs allow it to support a complete set of level 3 advisors. Together with the Innovative Idea Group, Ming can remain competitive technology-wise with Western and Eastern European powers.

Depending on the player's wishes, Ming may either choose to Westernize or not; either way, Ming can maintain dominance in Asia. However, should Ming want to engage with the Western colonial powers, it is best to Westernize, as Chinese units quickly become outclassed by Military tech level 20.

Factions[edit]

Understanding when to switch faction control is crucial to avoiding the penalties associated with Inward Perfection. It is important to note that, for the majority of the game, it is best to keep the Eunuchs in power, mostly due to the advisor upkeep reduction (allowing you to have three level 3 advisors) and the increased trade income (which beats out the increased taxation from the Bureaucrats). The Eunuchs also allow diplomatic relations without any penalty and tech costs are cheaper.

Earlier in the game, should Ming be drawn into a war, it is crucial to have the Temples faction in power. Without them, Ming gets severe penalties to discipline and morale that will render its troops unable to beat enemy armies half their size, unless offset by superior Ming leadership or military technology. The Temples faction also reduces the diplomatic power cost for pressing for unjustified demands and also the cost of coring conquered provinces.

The Bureaucrats faction deal with national maintenance, reducing stability costs and building construction costs. Should the Ming ruler have no heir, it is best to keep the Bureaucrats in power, as they offset the penalty to the chance of getting an heir. This is crucial as the consequences of the ruler dying heirless can be more severe for Ming than other countries, because a low-legitimacy successor taking the throne can cause the Mandate of Heaven to be lost, penalizing Ming even further.

As a general rule of thumb, keep the Eunuchs faction in power, switching temporarily to the Temples faction during a war (as necessary) and when signing peace deals or coring provinces, and switching to the Bureaucrats faction when constructing buildings, gaining stability or looking for an imperial heir.

The Mandate of Heaven[edit]

The 'Mandate of Heaven' is a triggered modifier, providing a significant reduction to national revolt risk and a minor reduction to stability costs. It is maintained provided the country has stability zero or greater and the ruler has legitimacy 60 or greater. Should these conditions not be met, the 'Mandate of Heaven' modifier is lost and in addition, the 'Mandate of Heaven Lost' modifier is triggered. The 'Mandate of Heaven Lost' modifier ups revolt risk and stability cost significantly, all the while penalizing national tax income. Hence the player should be wary of an heir lacking a strong claim succeeding the throne and destabilizing events. While a problematic succession can cause problems for any country, the significance of the 'Mandate of Heaven' means the problems for the Celestial Empire are relatively much worse. An effective swing of +10% revolt risk can result in waves of rebellions across the Empire.

Ideas[edit]

The choice of Ming's first National Idea Group is dependent on the player's game plan.

If Ming is seeking to expand and colonize, then the Exploration group should be first choice. With the Philippines and Oceanic islands to the south and Siberia to the North (assuming horde nations have been dealt with first), Ming has a lot of choice in regions to colonize. Recruiting explorers and exploring Africa, Europe and eventually the Americas will also put Ming in a good position to Westernize. The Expansion group isn't as useful as Exploration, but may have some utility in its versatility.

An early military idea group could help Ming in defending or conquering the Oirat Horde or the Manchu. Offensive and Quality are good choices, as Ming has large manpower reserves and overall income, making Quantity redundant and Ming's large size naturally make Ming a hard to country to subjugate.

The Religious idea group is also very helpful, providing a free casus belli against Ming's non-Confucian neighbours (of which there are many), and allowing easier conversion of Sunni provinces. The final bonus to improved relations over time is also beneficial if Ming is aggressively attacking its neighbours. The "Ecumenism" idea (+2 tolerance of heretics) will almost certainly bring Ming's tolerance of heretics over 2, at which point provinces will start spontaneously switching to Buddhism, which seriously impedes the missionary effort. It's thus recommended to finish the Religious group after Ming has conquered most of South East Asia and Indian subcontinent. However, having the Temple faction in power reduces the rate of switching religion and can even forcefully convert provinces by event.

Another good choice is the Diplomatic group, especially for an expanding power. The -25% cost to unjustified demands will end up saving a lot of diplomatic power in the long run.

The Innovative idea group has a number of events that provide monarch power and can be helpful in keeping Ming technologically on track, should Ming choose not to Westernize. However, if Ming does seek to Westernize, then the benefits of an early Innovative idea group are wasted as they do not help in holding Ming at least 8 technologies behind a Western power. However, it may be worth considering in the later game.

Expansion[edit]

As the largest nation in Asia, Ming has the luxury of choosing the direction of its expansion. However, Ming's most dangerous enemies are the hordes that lie to the north, the Oirat and the Manchu. The Manchu generally declare war on the Oirat within the first decade. This presents an opportunity for Ming to cripple the losing horde.


Manchu

The only province that Ming may fabricate claims on is Haixi. If Ming decides to take multiple provinces in the war, Khanka may be an appealing target as taking Haixi and Khanka blocks Korea from expanding into Manchu (Korea may declare war on Manchu if Ming has weakened them enough). Manchu rarely makes alliances therefore after this first war, the Manchu are generally no longer a threat to Ming.


Oirat

The Oirat are more difficult to cripple than the Manchu due to the Oirat's tendency to make alliances. Common alliance partners include Korea, Tibet or Shan. While Ming may be able to win a war against all four nations, it may be advisable to wait until the Oirat are busy with another war. Generally, Oirat will declare war against Chagatai (their western neighbour) within the first decade. It may be appealing to take the Govi Atlay and Khangai provinces as with the colonist(s) from the exploration or expansion ideas it is possible to cut off Muscovy/Russia from expanding further east by colonizing the Irkutsk and East Tunguska provinces directly above. In addition, Ming may elect to force the Oirat to release Mongolia. If Ming avoids taking the provinces next to Mongolia it is possible to peacefully vassalize Mongolia, however the window to due so is short as Ming will need the released in peace modifier (+100 relations) to counter the border friction, neighbouring heretic religion and desires your provinces modifiers (depending on the exact provinces under Ming's control, approximately -100 relations).


Tibet

Tibet generally remains a very weak nation, usually fielding no more than 6 units. Tibet usually cannot be peacefully vassalized due to high border friction and neighbouring heretic religion modifers.


Korea

Korea can field a decent sized army and navy (approximately 15 units and 20 ships, more if they have taken territory from Manchu). By themselves, Korea is no threat to Ming, however they tend to ally with Oirat. Korea usually cannot be peacefully vassalized due to its high base tax. If Ming does not ally or annex Korea for a long time, Japan may unify and attack Korea.


Japan

A fully unified Japan is capable of fielding up to 35 units and 35 ships. They may or may not have allies. It is possible to easily win most wars by sieging and blocking the western islands of Japan with ships to prevent Japanese troops from attacking your sieging units (Ming can field up to 60-70 ships).


Dai Viet

It is possible to immediately declare war on Dai Viet by taking the mission, "Restore the old frontier". It may be advisable to vassalize rather than annex Dai Viet due to the increased coring costs required.


Southeast Asian Nations

These nations can be peacefully vassalized (except for Champa as it is Hindu and Ayutthaya as it is too large) and present very little threat to Ming. They are easy expansion opportunities.


Colonization

By taking expansion or exploration ideas, Ming is capable of colonizing eastern Siberia, South Asia and even the west coast of the New World. If Ming decides to take territory from Oirat, it is possible to cut off Muscovy/Russian expansion (see Oirat section above).

Westernization[edit]

Main article: westernization

Westernizing can turn the Ming into a world power. While not absolutely necessary, westernization allows Ming to seriously compete with European powers. After westernizing, the player can choose to colonize Oceania, parts of Africa, or even the New World (though the distance will hinder colonization speed). Together with Ming's seventh unique idea, Ming's armies can outnumber the Russian forces allowing Ming to vie for control over the northern Siberian region and even push into European territory.

Note that if Ming westernizes early, this might seriously hinder their rate of expansion, as it will no longer be able to vassalize countries from Indian and Chinese tech groups and will have to make them protectorates instead. With prohibitively long time to core (10 or even more years), direct annexation is also not very attractive. It's thus recommended to annex or vassalize all countries in the Chinese tech group first (certainly doable by 1700) and most of the Indian Hindu states before starting westernization.

As of 1.6 it is no longer necessary to westernize in order to compete with European powers, and may be detrimental as westernization progress is now tied to income. The rebalanced units allows the Chinese tech group to stay competitive with European armies at least until the very late game, and thereafter to compensate with sheer numbers.

Other tactics[edit]

It may be better to 'Denounce Neo-Confucianism' over accepting it to gain the extra missionary strength.