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Culture groups in 1444
Individual cultures in 1444

Culture icon.png In the game, cultures are divided into groups. Each province has one dominant culture, and each country has one primary culture with possibly one or more accepted/promoted cultures

Primary culture[edit]

All countries have one primary culture. This is normally fixed, although it can be changed either through the culture mechanics or via certain national decisions.

Cultural shift[edit]

Any accepted culture that has at least 50% of the development of the country’s state cores can be promoted to the primary culture of the nation. This costs 100 Diplomatic power.png diplomatic power, and replaces the previous ‘Accept Cultural Shift’[1] decision. The previous primary culture will consequently change as an accepted culture.

The player can not shift to a culture that is accepted due to the cultural union granted by Empire level government.

It can be advantageous for a player to set a new primary culture to be able to form a country with a different tag (with new national ideas), or to be in a larger culture group, to have more brother cultures and save promoted cultures slots.

Accepted cultures [edit]

Government interface

The player has the ability to promote a culture to make it accepted or to demote it, removing it from accepted cultures. The player can promote any culture in his nation that has at least 20 cored development in a state. It costs 100 Diplomatic power.png diplomatic power, but it could be advantageous in the long run. Demoting a culture from 'accepted cultures' costs 10 diplomatic and adds +5 National unrest.png unrest in all provinces with that culture, that will decay over time.

Max promoted cultures:

Max promoted cultures.png +2 Base value

Max promoted cultures.png +1 Trading in silk

Max promoted cultures.png +1 at diplomatic technology levels: 8, 14, 20, 26, 31

Max promoted cultures.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Humanist idea 5: Cultural Ties
  • Arakanese traditions
  • Ayutthayan traditions
  • Pattani traditions
  • Polish traditions
  • Shan traditions
  • Tumbuka traditions
  • Vindhyan traditions
  • Arawak idea 4: Tribal Tolerance
  • Athenian idea 2: Athenian Openness
  • Bahmani idea 3: Dakani Language
  • Beninese idea 6: Adoption of Benin Customs
  • Caucasian idea 1: Crossroad Of Cultures
  • Central Indian idea 4: Flexible Caste System
  • Fulani Jihad idea 6: Community of the Faithful
  • Kaffan idea 2: Minjo Usurpation
  • Lan Na idea 5: Red and Black Vassals
  • Lan Xang idea 1: Laotian Ethnic Diversity
  • Laotian idea 4: Laotian Ethnic Diversity
  • Lorraine idea 5: Two Languages, One Land
  • Mexican idea 2: The Republic of Indians
  • Moravian idea 5: German Quarters
  • Mossi idea 3: Nyonnyonse Vassals
  • Ottoman idea 1: Kanunnames
  • Sligonian idea 3: Cultural Crossroads
  • West African idea 7: Maintain Minor Kings
  • Malvi ambition
  • Humanist−Diplomatic: Multilingual Diplomats
  • Humanist−Plutocratic: Cultural Recognition Act

Cultural union[edit]

Cultural unions will automatically accept all sub-cultures within their respective culture group. Any nation can become a Cultural Union (CU) of its culture group upon reaching the Empire rank Empire government rank, or 1000 development if the player does not have Common Sense. As part of this change it is possible for several nations to be a CU for the same culture group. A nation can become an empire as part of a decision, event, reaching a certain development level or by upgrading the government rank; Cultural Unions make it so brother cultures don't have to be promoted to be accepted by the country.

Penalties for unaccepted cultures[edit]

A province with a non-accepted culture will provide less tax and have higher unrest alongside other penalties. A province with a culture in the same culture group, but not the same culture as the owner will get lighter penalties:

Same culture group (Culture name will be in yellow, will have a star next to their names on the culture tab)

Local tax modifier.png −15% Local tax modifier
Local manpower modifier.png −15% Local manpower modifier
Local sailors modifier.png −10% Local sailors modifier

Different culture group (Culture name will be in red)

Local tax modifier.png −33% Local tax modifier
Local missionary strength.png −2% Local missionary strength
Local manpower modifier.png −33% Local manpower modifier
Local sailors modifier.png −20% Local sailors modifier
Local unrest.png +2 Local unrest

Republican Cultural Sufferance

Republics get an additional cultural sufferance modifier in different culture-group provinces. This stacks with the usual penalty, mitigating but not eliminating it.

Local tax modifier.png +10% Local tax modifier
Local manpower modifier.png +10% Local manpower modifier
Local sailors modifier.png +5% Local sailors modifier
Local unrest.png −0.5 Local unrest

Culture change[edit]

The culture of a province can be changed to another culture if the province is cored by its owner, has the same religion as its owner and has no Separatism unrest. The cost for converting culture is 10 diplomatic power per development[2] and the duration for the change to take place is 10 months per development[3]. Like coring costs, culture conversion costs are capped at 30 development, so improving a 30 development province will not increase the cost of converting its culture. Sieges and occupations will pause culture conversion but will not cancel it, the culture conversion will continue as soon as the province is liberated, although conversion will be cancelled if the province's ownership changes. If the conversion is cancelled before progress reaches 10%, all diplomatic points will be refunded.

A province can have its culture changed to the primary culture of the province's owner. With The Cossacks, a province's culture can also be changed to any owned neighbouring province's culture or its culture can be restored to whatever it was originally. Changing to neighbouring culture can be beneficial if the neighbouring culture is accepted or close to being accepted.

Converting a province from culture A to culture B will incur a relations hit with every country whose primary culture is culture A.


The cultural conversion cost modifier reduces only the diplomatic power needed to change a province's culture. The time needed for the change to be complete cannot be reduced.

After applying "Culture conversion cost" modifiers, the cost is raised to a minimum of Diplomatic power.png 1 per development.[4] Then the following modifiers apply multiplicatively:

−25% if the province borders another owned province with the desired culture (adjacency bonus)[5]
−50% if the province is being restored to its original culture (original culture bonus)[6]
−80% if the province is overseas and is the country's main religion (overseas province bonus) [7]

\text{cost}=\min\left(30;\text{development}\right)\cdot\max\left(1;10\cdot\left(1+\sum\text{modifiers}\right)\right)\cdot\left(1+\text{adjacency bonus}\right)\cdot\left(1+\text{original culture bonus}\right)\cdot\left(1+\text{overseas province bonus}\right)

Culture conversion cost.png Triggers
−25% Enlightenment.png Enlightenment
−15% Parliament.png "Assimilation and Settlement Policy" active issue

Ideas and policies:

Culture conversion cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Fully Religious
  • Karamanid idea 1: Mehmet Bey's Firman
  • Influence-Religious: Cultural Unity
  • Ando idea 5: Integration of other Cultures
  • Ionian idea 7: Ionian Academy
  • Nizhny Novgorod idea 7: Russian Ambition
  • Lunda idea 5: Warrior Migrations
  • Kongolese idea 5: Aggressive Migration
  • Aragonese ambition
  • Divine ambition
Decisions and events:
Culture conversion cost.png Event modifier Trigger Duration
−5% Itinerant Capital Ethiopian event: “The Itinerant Capital
Option: ‘Actively encourage the cultural conversion of the countryside.’
for 10 years.
−15% One Language of Government Spanish event: “Grammar of the [Root.Culture.GetName] Tounge
Option: ‘Adopt [Root.Culture.GetName] as the language of our administration.’
until ruler changes.
−10% Pushing the Tatars Back Russian mission: “Drive Back the Tatars for 15 years.

Primary nation[edit]

Most cultures have a primary nation. These nation will keep uncontested cores indefinitely[8], so long as their cores are in provinces of their culture - culture conversion will force these cores to obey the normal 50/150 year expiry timers for cores depending on whether or not the new culture is the same culture group as the nation with a core there. Primary nations of each culture can be found in the list below.

Lost cultures[edit]

Cultures in the Lost Cultures group do not exist at game start, but can be created as custom nations or during the invasion. The only culture that can be re-discovered is the Roman culture by Restoring the Roman Empire that changes the primary culture of the nation. All provinces with the former nation's primary culture will change to Roman culture.

Culture groups[edit]

Note that culture groups are not just based on linguistic criteria - for example, Romanian is grouped with the Carpathian cultures due to cultural similarities and for gameplay purposes, even though Carpathian is not a linguistic family.

Primary nations of each culture are listed to the right of each culture.





  • Het
  • Huarpe
  • MapucheFlag of Mapuche Mapuche
  • Patagonian










Central Algonquian

Central American

Central Indian






East Bantu

  • Bena
  • Malagasy
  • SwahiliFlag of Kilwa Kilwa
  • Takama
  • Thagiicu

East Slavic

Eastern Algonquian

Eastern Aryan


  • Aleutian
  • Inuit




Great Lakes











Lost Cultures

  • Anglo-Saxon
  • Aramaic
  • Athenian
  • Atlantean
  • Babylonian
  • Etrurian
  • Hebrew
  • Jan Mayenese
  • Old Egyptian
  • Parthian
  • Phoenician
  • Pruthenian
  • Roman
  • Scanian
  • Scythian
  • Spartan






  • Chacoan


Mon Khmer






  • Aboriginal
  • Melanesian
  • MoluccanFlag of Ternate Ternate
  • Papuan


Plains Algonquian




South Slavic

Southern African






  • Ingrian
  • Ostyak
  • Samoyed
  • UralicFlag of Perm Perm

West African

West Slavic

Western Aryan


  1. The last version of the descision ‘Accept Cultural Shift’ for patch 1.17 can be found here.
  2. From /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: PS_CHANGE_CULTURE = 10
  3. From /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: MONTHS_TO_CHANGE_CULTURE = 10, -- How many months it will take to change culture in a province, per development.
  4. Verify as Russia, "War of the Quadruple Alliance" bookmark: Full Religious, Enlightenment, Influence-Religious: Cultural Unity, Parliament issue "Assimilation and Settlement Policy".
  5. From /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: CULTURE_COST_DIFF_ADJACENT = -25, -- Difference in cost in percent to convert to adjacent culture.
  6. From /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: CULTURE_COST_DIFF_ORIGINAL = -50, -- Difference in cost in percent to convert to original culture.
  7. From /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: PS_CHANGE_CULTURE_OVERSEAS_RELIGION_MOD = -0.8, -- Modifier how much cheaper it is to change culture in overseas province if same religion
  8. From /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: CORE_LOSE_PRIMARY_CULTURE_TAG = -1, -- how many years until a core is lost for the primary tag of a country (-1 = never lost)
Province mechanics
Management CapitalCoreCultureReligionRebellionAutonomyList of provinces
Economy DevelopmentTaxProductionBuildingsManpowerSailors