Force limit

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A force limit is a soft limit on how many ships or regiments a country can possess. It can be exceeded at a monetary price.

If a country goes past its force limit the maintenance cost per unit will increase by as many percent as they are above the force limit, eventually making further expansion of the army or navy prohibitively expensive.

There are two independent force limits, one for naval units and one for land units, but both operate largely the same.

Computing force limit[edit]

Province modifiers[edit]

Provinces contribute to the force limit through their development level and through the following modifiers and buildings. Note that only coastal provinces may contribute to a country's naval force limit.

Condition Land Force Limit Naval Force Limit
Per development +0.1 +0.1
Trade good bonus: Grain
(only with Rights of Man.png Rights of Man)
Trade good bonus: Naval supplies
(only with Rights of Man.png Rights of Man)
Regimental Camp +1 0
Conscription Center +2 0
Shipyard 0 +2
Grand Shipyard 0 +4
Important center of trade 0 +2
Being in trade company 0 +0.5
Local autonomy (per 1%) -1% -1%

Country modifiers[edit]

Condition Force Limit multiplier
Land Naval
Independent nation +6 +12
Subject nation +3 +6
March nation +3 / +30% +6 / +30%
"Trading in" bonus: Grain +10% 0
"Trading in" bonus: Naval supplies 0 +10%
Being the revolution target +40% +40%
Being an invading nation +100 +100

Updating force limits[edit]

Force limits are normally recalculated by the game on the first day of each month. To force an update in the middle of a month, you can activate a privateer mission and wait one day for the force limits to refresh. This may be necessary if one changes local autonomy levels in the middle of the month for example.

More sources of force limit[edit]

Ideas and policies[edit]

Ideas and policies that increase force limits:

Land force limit

Land force limit modifier.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Russian idea 4: Life-Long Conscription
  • Full Quantity
  • Scottish traditions
  • Muscovite ambition
  • Ottoman ambition
  • Chickasaw traditions
  • Daimyo traditions
  • Nepali traditions
  • Satake traditions
  • Hessian idea 6: Hessian Mercenaries
  • Moldavian idea 3: Upper Boyars
  • Permian idea 7: Permian Army Reform
  • Ryazan idea 1: The Arsenal of Ryazan
  • Sukhothai ambition
  • Welsh ambition
  • Arawak traditions
  • Imagawa traditions
  • Incan traditions
  • Mazovian traditions
  • Shoni traditions
  • Toki traditions
  • Tverian traditions
  • Offensive idea 6: Grand Army
  • Albanian idea 1: All Lands Under Skanderbeg
  • Ando idea 3: Clan Unification
  • Hosokawa idea 4: The Eastern Army
  • Thomondian idea 2: Subdue the Clans
  • Baluch ambition
  • Lan Xang ambition
  • Laotian ambition
  • Somali ambition
  • Roman idea 4: The Roman Legions
  • Diplomatic-Quantity: The Pen Relies on The Sword Act
  • Economic-Quantity: Agricultural Cultivation
  • Quantity-Expansion: Colonial Garrisons

Naval force limit

Naval force limit modifier.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Dutch traditions
  • Maritime idea 4: Grand Navy
  • Danish idea 5: Found the Copenhagen Dockyard
  • Knights Hospitaller idea 6: Scourge of the Corsairs
  • Gutnish idea 6: Gutnish Merchant Navy
  • Cypriot ambition
  • Maritime-Expansion: Naval Infrastructure
  • Sulawesi traditions
  • Exploration idea 7: Global Empire
  • Berber idea 1: Barbary Pirates
  • Candarid idea 6: Sinop Shipyard
  • Couronian idea 5: Couronian Colonization
  • Estonian idea 2: Baltic Ties
  • Genoese idea 6: Setup the Office of Grand Admiral
  • Hormuz idea 7: Hormuzi Naval Expansion
  • Ionian idea 5: Naval Expansion
  • Kono idea 1: Shugo of Iyo
  • Leonese idea 5: Expand the Leonese Navy
  • Orissan idea 7: Heritage of the Sadhabas
  • Pomeranian idea 7: German Navy
  • Sumatran idea 7: Rule of The Sea
  • Venetian idea 1: Venetian Arsenal
  • Breton ambition
  • Cham ambition
  • Hamburger ambition
  • Malagasy ambition
  • Navarran traditions
  • Mogadishan idea 6: Horn of Africa
  • Naxian idea 1: Maritime State
  • Ragusan idea 4: Ragusan Arsenal
  • Sligonian idea 6: Sligo's Naval Ambition
  • Croatian traditions
  • Naval-Maritime: The Naval Supremacy Act
  • Aragonese idea 2: Protection of the Coastlines
  • Provençal idea 6: Toulon Dockyard


Land force limit

Type Modifier
Steppe nomads +10%/+20%/+30%
Tribal Federation +10%
Dutch Republic +25% if the Orangists are in power
Revolutionary republic +20% if the Girondists are in power

Additionally, the Holy Roman Emperor gets Land forcelimit.png+0.5 land force limit per member state.

Naval force limit

Type Modifier
Dutch Republic +10% if the Statists are in power


  • Following ideas and policies that increase force limits increased by subjects

Vassal forcelimit bonus.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Influence idea 7: Marcher Lords
  • Ashikaga idea 7: Reform the Shogun - Shogu System
  • Bosnian idea 5: Land of Princes
  • Influence-Aristocratic: Autonomous Estates
  • Influence-Economic: Vassal Obligations Act
  • Influence-Offensive: Unified Army Command

Effect on maintenance[edit]

If a country has more land or naval units than the corresponding force limit, maintenance for those units will be multiplied by the ratio of units to the force limit, with the units over the force limit counting twice[1]. For example, being at twice the force limit will triple the maintenance for each unit.


For purposes of this section, assume the average base maintenance per unit—that is, the maintenance cost of a unit before force limit modifiers—is constant. Units over the force limit count double[1], thus the force limit ratio is defined as

\text{force limit ratio} = \frac{\text{number of units}+\text{number of units over the force limit}}{\text{force limit}}

Total maintenance cost[edit]

The total maintenance cost of an army or navy is

\text{total maintenance cost} = \text{average base maintenance}\cdot\text{number of units}\cdot\text{max(force limit ratio, 1)}

In this case, when above the force limit:

  • A multiplier to force limit has the same effect as a reciprocal multiplier to maintenance.
  • The number of units that can be fielded for a fixed maintenance cost grows as the square root of the force limit.


  1. 1.0 1.1 See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua
Land warfare ArmyLand unitsDisciplineManpower
Naval warfare NavyNaval unitsSailors
Other concepts Casus belliWar exhaustionMilitary traditionLeadersAlliance