Trade

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This article deals with the trade network and trade income. For information about trade goods and their production and value, see trade goods.
Trade nodes

Trade and production of trade goods are two of the three main sources of income for a country, the third being taxes. Every province produces trade goods, which give production income to their owner directly. The trade value of the goods then enters a system of trade nodes, where it is steered and eventually collected by merchants as trade income.

Summary[edit]

The trade system in game can be summarized as follows:

  • Trade nodes across the world are connected to form a global network of trade. Each node hosts the trade activity of a group of geographically associated provinces. Money in this global trade network can flow between trade nodes in unidirectional trade routes as well as terminate at end nodes. These connections between trade nodes are fixed and cannot be altered during the course of play.
  • Trade value represents the monthly sum of locally produced and incoming trade goods in a trade node. Trade value is generated from the quantity and price of produced trade goods in each province. All provinces pool their trade value into the total trade value of their associated trade node. The trade tab provides an aggregate trade value in a node while the trade map mode displays a tool tip listing locally produced separately from incoming trade good values.
  • Trade power is a raw number representing a country's control over trade in a node. The raw trade power of a country over the total trade power of all countries present in the node determines what will happen to the trade value in each node. Power is used either to retain trade value within the node (if the nation is collecting with a merchant or at its home node), or to transfer it forward in the trade network (if the nation is steering from there with a merchant, or it's not its home node and it has no merchant). Trade power is generated by provinces, light ships, and merchants. Certain ideas, events and modifiers can also affect a country's trade power in a node.
  • Merchants can be sent to a trade node to collect a portion of the node's trade value proportional to the nation's share of trade power in the node, or steer the node's trade value in a particular direction.

Trade nodes[edit]

See also: Trade nodes

The provinces in the world are divided into regions that are each associated with a trade node.

Every trade node has a predefined set of upstream and downstream nodes, which trade value can flow from and to, respectively. All trade value entering a trade node from upstream will either be collected there or transferred downstream to another trade node. Collecting in a trade node converts a country's share of trade value there directly into ducats.

Trade value come from two sources, local trade value and incoming trade value. Local trade value are produced by the underlying provinces. Incoming are values that come from upstream nodes.

Nations which have trade power in a node have influence over the node's trade value proportional to their share of total trade power.

\text{Node share of trade value} = \left(\text{Local value}\, +\, \text{Incoming value}\right)\,\cdot\, \frac{\text{Own trade power}} {\text{Total trade power}}

This influence is exercised in one of two ways:

  • Collect trade value: national share of trade value is turned into income.
This happens automatically if the node is the home node, or if a merchant is dispatched to do so. Collecting trade in a non-home node will halve the trade power of the nation in that node.
  • Transport forward trade value: national share of trade value is sent forward to one of the downstream nodes.
If a nation is not collecting in a node, then its share of trade value will be sent away to one of the directly connected node. The destination node is chosen automatically, but it is configurable if a merchant is dispatched to "transfer trade power"(misnomer).

Home node is the trade node in which a nation's main trading city resides. All nations will automatically collect their share of trade value from their home nodes, and send trade value towards it from other nodes if possible. The main trade port is typically located in a nation's capital, but it can be moved for 200 Diplomatic power.png with the Wealth of Nations.png Wealth of Nations DLC.

All non-home nodes are classified as domestic or foreign. A node is labeled domestic if 20% of the provincial trade power is held by the nation. For these purposes a home node is considered domestic.[1]. The distinction comes into play in two cases:

  • certain ideas, traditions etc. give bonus to trade power specifically in domestic or foreign trade nodes,
  • if a nation encounters overextension it suffers a -1% penalty to trade power per point of overextension in foreign nodes but not in domestic nodes.

If a nation is not collecting in a node, nor any node downstream, even through multiple hops, then it is not eligible to influence trade value in this node. The nation's share of trade value is then redistributed among nations that are eligible. Thus trade power of the nation in this node is effectively wasted.[2] The nation can still benefit from propagation effect though. Sending a merchant to such a node either to collect or transfer will make nation eligible for trade value in a normal way.

Trade value[edit]

See also: Trade goods

Trade value represents ducats (money) in the trade network.

Local trade value[edit]

The local trade value of a node is the sum of the trade value of all provinces belonging to the node. On a provincial level, trade value is the amount of local goods produced multiplied by their price. In the trade map mode hovering the mouse over a trade node will open a box showing the local trade value.

Total trade value[edit]

Total trade value in a trade node is the sum of local trade value (from provinces), incoming trade value (from upstream trade nodes), minus outgoing trade value (to downstream trade nodes). Total trade value is distributed among countries with trade power in the node. Total trade value of trade nodes can be found in the ledger under Trade/Trade Nodes category in the list of trade nodes. The summary of trade value can be found in the trade node view panel as a tooltip which shows the retained trade value that is total trade value less outgoing trade value [3].

Multiple merchant bonus[edit]

In addition to steering outgoing trade value through a particular outgoing link, each merchant applies a boost to the trade value on that link---that is, the steered trade value increases by a percentage as it passes between the two nodes, so that the incoming trade value of the downstream node is larger than the corresponding outgoing trade value of the upstream node. This affects all trade on that link, not just the merchant's country, so multiple merchants can boost trade on the same link. The total boost is:

Merchants Boost Cumulative
0 0.0% 0.0%
1 +5.0% +5.0%
2 +2.5% +7.5%
3 +1.6% +9.1%
4 +1.2% +10.3%
5 +1.0% +11.3%

Having more than five merchants will not increase the boost further. The boost is modified by the country's trade steering: for example, if the first merchant's country has +20% trade steering the boost from the merchant will be increased to +6.0%. Currently the merchant order is unsorted, so the merchant with the highest trade steering will not necessarily be first.

Trade power[edit]

Trade power determines the share of control over trade value of a nation in a node.

national share of trade value = (local value + incoming value) * tradepower / TotalTradepower

This value can either be collected (turned into income), or be transported downstream.

Trade power sources[edit]

A country's trade power in a trade node is determined by:

Provincial trade power[edit]

Historical centers of trade (as of 1.9). Legend: religious center toll river estuary center of trade other
Note that some provinces, e.g. Holland, have more than one of these modifiers.

Every province contributes an amount of trade power to its controller's country in the local trade node. The exact amount and relevant calculations can be seen in province view under Trade category. The base trade power is 0.2 per province development. Certain provinces gain bonus trade power if they are designated as centers of trade (+10), important natural harbor (+10), river estuaries (+10) or sound tolls (+20). These are denoted by special icons visible on the trade map, and when selecting the province in question. Trade power of the province is subject to various modifiers both global (e.g. +2% per point of a nation's mercantilism) and local (e.g. coastal provinces get +25% trade power bonus). Trade buildings also provide trade power bonus (up to +125%).

  • Merchant republics have the option of building 1 trade post (+10) per trade node in an owned province (except the home node) for -50 Administrative power.png adm points.

Provincial trade power modifiers[edit]

  • Certain ideas and policies improve provincial trade power.
Provincial trade power modifier.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+25%
  • Colonial idea 2: Continental Trade
  • Mazovian idea 7: Central Emporium
  • Mamluk ambition
+20%
  • Gujarati idea 5: Hub of the Indian Ocean Trade
  • Hanseatic idea 6: Regularized Contributions
  • Wallachian idea 2: Foreign Trade Restriction
+15%
  • Tverian traditions
  • Circassian idea 2: Merchants Of Genoa
  • Client State idea 5: Mercantile Privileges
  • Kanem Bornuan idea 7: Duties on Sahara Trade
  • Yarkandi idea 7: Encourage Tarim Trade
  • Huron ambition
+10%
  • Kutai traditions
  • Lan Na traditions
  • Pegu traditions
  • Rostov traditions
  • Wurzburgian traditions
  • Espionage idea 3: Vetting
  • Amago idea 5: Dominate the Coastal Trade
  • Andean idea 2: Mountain Roads Network
  • Bremish idea 5: Vegesack Harbor
  • Golden Horde idea 4: Secure the Trade Routes
  • Kongo idea 5: The Triangle Trade
  • Malvi idea 7: Malwa Opium
  • Orleanaise idea 2: Port of Orleans
  • Sami idea 4: Encourage growth of the Winter Market
  • Savoyard idea 6: Alpine Tolls
  • Silesian idea 6: Hanseatic Ties
  • Spanish idea 5: Treasure Fleet

Transfers from traders downstream[edit]

Any nation that has at least 10 provincial trade power points in the node enjoys the propagation of that power upstream. An amount equivalent to 20% of the nation's provincial trade power is added to the total trade power of that nation in every immediate upstream node where it is denoted as transfers from traders downstream.[4]

Mercantilism[edit]

Mercantilism provides a bonus to Trade power.png provincial trade power equal to double the listed mercantilism percentage.[5] High mercantilism increases liberty desire in colonial subjects up to 25%.

The initial base mercantilism is Mercantilism.png 10% but some countries start with Mercantilism.png 25%:

Certain events, decisions and missions give permanent increases or decreases to mercantilism, some of these are:

Trade company[edit]

Main article: trade company

Provinces in trade companies get +100% provincial trade power. There are 15 regions throughout Asia and Africa which may have a trade company. [6]. Nodes with trade companies in them count as domestic trade nodes and can be collected at by a merchant without incurring penalties for overextension.

Light ships[edit]

Protect trade[edit]

A country may increase its trade power in maritime (non-inland) trade nodes by sending its light ships on Protect Trade mission. Light ships increase trade power in the trade node in which they are protecting trade by a base ranging from 2 per ship (Barque, diplomatic technology 2) up to 5 per ship (Great frigate, diplomatic technology 26).


Diplomatic tech.png Name Trade power.png Hull.png Icon ship cannons.png Icon ship speed.png Description
2 Barque 2 8 10 10 The Barque was a small sailing ship, originally used for trade. Adapting these for warfare provided a smaller and faster alternative to the larger carracks.
9 Caravel 2.5 10 13 10 The caravel was a small, very maneuverable ship which could sail with a high precision on long discovery journeys. Although designs varied, a caravel had a foresail, a square mainsail and lateen mizzen. Its smaller size limited the number of guns on board, but it also meant that this light ship could explore shallow coastal waters and estuaries. Vasco Da Gama, Cabot, Columbus and Magellan used caravels during their late 15th century and early 16th century voyages.
15 Early Frigate 3 12 15 10 With the increasing overseas trade, there was a need for a fast escort vessel to provide safe journey. The early frigates were developed for this. They were smaller, leaner ships of war with one gun deck, and provided protection from piracy in dangerous waters.
19 Frigate 3.5 16 20 10 As time passed, the frigate evolved. It became larger and heavily armed, sometimes with two gun decks. The frigate's combination of speed and firepower meant that it could outrun any ship with more guns and outgun any faster ships. The fleet built by the Commonwealth of England in the 1650s consisted almost exclusively of frigates.
23 Heavy Frigate 4 20 25 10 Two decked vessels normally carrying about 40 guns.
26 Great frigate 5 24 30 10 A larger type of frigate, carrying additional guns.


Note that each light ship also increases the total trade power in the node, so the relative increase per light ship is:

\frac{\text{trade power}_\text{ship}} { \text{total trade power}_\text{node} + \text{trade power}_\text{ship} }

Thus for example, adding a single ship with a trade power of 2 to a node with a total trade power of 20 would be a relative increase of 2/(20+2) = 0.0909…, while adding a second such ship to the node would be a relative increase of 2/(22+2) = 0.0833….

Some bonuses to ship trade power are:

Ship trade power.png Triggers
+20% Being in a Trade League
+5% Per Naval leader maneuver.png Maneuver skill of the fleet's admiral

Supply range[edit]

Light ships on protect trade missions can only be sent to trade nodes where the country already has trade power and the supply range is met. The limitation on supply range applies even when naval attrition is removed at Diplomatic tech.png diplomatic tech 22. If the trade range permits, a country can send a merchant to a node without any initial trade power and then follow up with light ships protecting trade (as long as these are within supply range). A good way to arrange for a favorable supply range is by gaining fleet basing rights from a nation in the vicinity of the target trade node.

Other sources of trade power[edit]

  • Merchant Present: The presence of a merchant increases a nation's trade power by +2.
  • Main trade port in area: A nation gets additional +5 trade power in its home node.
  • Colonial nations provide their overlord with 50% of their trade power, while other nations can be persuaded (through diplomacy) or forced (through war) to transfer up to 50% of their trade power as well (trade transfer agreements no longer take a diplomatic relationship slot). As a note, personal unions and vassals do not transfer trade power to their suzerain. As such, vassals and personal unions may direct trade away from a preferred route or home trade node. However, the suzerain may demand 50% of their vassal's trade power, at a cost of liberty desire.

Trade power modifiers[edit]

Global trade power modifier[edit]

  • Certain ideas and policies improve global trade power.
Trade power.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+20%
  • Italian (cU) traditions
  • Expansion idea 7: Competitive Merchants
  • Trade idea 1: Shrewd Commerce Practice
  • Aragonese idea 5: Chartered Merchant Companies
  • Gujarati ambition
+15%
  • Danziger idea 2: Vistula River Trade
  • Hamburger idea 1: Hanseatic City
  • Romanian idea 6: Phanariote Traders
  • Date ambition
+10%
  • Münster traditions
  • Traditions of Theodoro
  • Venetian traditions
  • Antemoro idea 6: Strengthen control over the Slave Trade
  • Arabian idea 5: Bedouin Traders
  • Arawak idea 3: Orinoco Trade
  • Byzantine idea 5: Byzantine Merchant Class
  • Cham idea 3: South Indian Connections
  • Chimu idea 6: Specialized Economy
  • Gutnish idea 4: Rebuild the Trade
  • Hanseatic idea 1: The End of the Victual Brothers
  • Holstein idea 6: The Trade of Two Seas
  • Hormuz idea 5: Maintain Trading Monopoly
  • Indian Sultanate idea 5: Equality Under the Law
  • Mesoamerican idea 2: Altepetl
  • Milanese idea 6: Merchant Princes
  • Mogadishan idea 3: East African Gold Trade
  • Najdi idea 3: Ships of the Desert
  • Norwegian idea 5: Seize the Opportunity
  • Ogasawara idea 6: Improving the Nakasendo
  • Pagarruyung idea 2: Gold Trade
  • Portuguese idea 3: Feitorias
  • Pskovian idea 6: Arts and Crafts of Pskov
  • Ruthenian idea 4: East and West
  • Songhai idea 1: Gold To Salt Trade
  • Sulawesi idea 6: Entrepot of Trade
  • Vijayanagar idea 1: Promotion of Trade
  • West African idea 3: Kola Nuts
  • Berber ambition
  • Jaunpuri ambition
  • Pomeranian ambition
  • Swahili ambition
  • Diplomatic-Expansion: Commercial Embassies
  • Exploration-Innovative: Benign Neglect
+5%
  • Mamluk idea 1: Red Sea Trade
  • National idea 4: Contract Law
  • Novgorod idea 4: Control of the Hanseatic Kontor
  • Each colonial nation (of at least 10 provinces) provides +5% global trade power to its overlord.
  • Prestige.png Prestige provides between -15% and +15% global trade power.
  • Stability cost modifier.png Stability provides between -3% and +3% global trade power.
  • Power Projection.png Power projection provides between 0 and +20% global trade power.
  • Reformed.png Reformed religion Monthly fervor increase.png Fervor power Trade provides +10% global trade power with Wealth of Nations DLC active.

Domestic trade power modifier[edit]

  • Home node and nodes where a nation has the highest provincial trade power are considered domestic. Both oversea provinces and trade company provinces count. Domestic trade power refers to trade power in these nodes. Domestic trade nodes do not suffer from overextension.
  • Certain ideas and policies improve domestic trade power.
Trade power.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+25%
  • Muiscan traditions
  • Korean traditions
  • Ashikaga idea 4: Tosen-Bugyo
  • Beloozero idea 4: Northern Trade
  • Hungarian idea 6: Strengthen the Towns
  • Iroquois idea 3: Keepers of the Eastern Door
  • Timurid idea 6: Control of the Silk Road
  • Zambezi idea 3: Control of the Zambezi Trade
+20%
  • Ando idea 2: Ainu Trade
  • Mutapan idea 6: Controlling the Mutapan Riches
  • Ouchi idea 2: Korean Trade
  • Ragusan idea 2: Center of Trade
  • Trebizondian idea 6: Terminus of the Silk Road
  • Kutai ambition
+15%
  • Medri Bahri idea 6: Promote the Red Sea Trade
  • Otomo idea 4: Welcoming the Nanban Trade
  • Utsunomiya idea 3: Barrier of Shirakawa
+10%
  • Afghan traditions
  • Danziger traditions
  • Hausan traditions
  • Kono traditions
  • K'iche traditions
  • Andhra idea 7: Encourage Coromandel Trade
  • Baluch idea 5: Control the Overland Trade
  • French ducal idea 1: Men of Trade
  • German idea 2: Frühlings− und Herbstmesse
  • Granada idea 4: Strait of Gibraltar
  • Isshiki idea 1: Shugo of Tango
  • Hejazi idea 2: Red Sea Trade
  • Pacific Northwest idea 4: Potlatch Feast
  • Shan idea 4: Control of the Gem Trade
  • Siberian idea 2: Siberian Fur Trade
  • Shoni ambition
  • Sinhalese ambition
  • Yarkandi ambition

Foreign trade power modifier[edit]

  • Trade nodes that are not domestic are considered foreign and will suffer from over-extension penalties. Trade power abroad refers to trade power in these nodes.
  • Trade power abroad receives following bonuses:
Trade power abroad.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+30%
  • Plutocratic-Trade: Trade Kontor Network
+15%
  • Aristocratic-Trade: Trade Connections Policy
  • Naval-Trade: Fortified Trading Posts
+10%
  • Hormuz traditions
  • Ragusan traditions
  • Couronian idea 3: Duchy of Mercantilism
  • Genoese idea 3: Rebuilding Genoese Trade
  • Hosokawa idea 3: Sakai City
  • Ionian idea 6: Entrepôt of the Eastern Mediterranean
  • -1% equal to overextension, this modifier is uncapped (at least to 300%).

Trade steering[edit]

Trade steering is applied as a multiplicative bonus to trade power used for steering when determining which outgoing node trade is steered to.

  • Trade steering is increased by certain ideas and policies.
Trade steering.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+33%
  • Omani idea 1: Local Merchant Preference
+25%
  • Mamluk traditions
  • Trade idea 6: Trade Manipulation
  • Navarran idea 5: Cross-Pyrenean Trade
  • Pomeranian idea 3: Northern Ports
  • Defensive-Trade: The Armed Neutrality Act
+20%
  • Gujarati traditions
  • Kutai traditions
  • Ryukyuan traditions
  • Aragonese idea 3: Mediterranean trade
  • Huron idea 3: Birchbark Canoes
  • Mapuche idea 4: Mapuche Weaving
  • Pattani idea 2: South China Sea Trade
  • Pskovian idea 7: Pskov Before All Others
  • Shimazu idea 6: Okinawa Trade
  • Danziger ambition
  • Norwegian ambition
  • Orissan ambition
  • Transylvanian ambition
  • Trade-Expansion: Encouragement of Merchant Navy
+15%
  • Somali traditions
  • Arabian idea 1: Indian Ocean Trade
  • Canadian idea 6: Legacy of the Empire
  • Luxembourg idea 3: The Moselle Trade
  • Ouchi idea 5: Mercantile Diplomacy
+10%
  • Bengali traditions
  • Breton traditions
  • Traditions of The Hansa
  • Irish traditions
  • Krakowian traditions
  • Malayan sultanate traditions
  • Medri Bahri traditions
  • Orleanaise traditions
  • Croatian idea 2: Pearl of the Adriatic
  • Granada idea 4: Strait of Gibraltar
  • Javan idea 4: Pan-Asia Trade
  • Silesian idea 4: Raubritter
  • Sulawesi idea 1: Intra-Asian Trade Network
  • Burgundian ambition
+5%
  • National idea 6: Mercantile Status

Each point of naval tradition also increases trade steering efficiency by 1%.

Caravan power[edit]

Note: The values are displayed under country modifiers of the government interface even without Wealth of Nations DLC, but without effect in the trade nodes.

A nation steering from, towards or collecting (only in main trading port) an inland trade node receives bonus trade power. Caravan power is total development/3 and maxed at 50.

Merchant republics gain +33% bonus to Caravan power.

  • Caravan power is increased by certain ideas and policies. Can exceed 50 with these bonus.
Caravan power.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+33%
  • Naval-Influence: The Cooperation Act
+25%
  • Plutocratic idea 6: Free Cities
  • Trade idea 7: Fast Negotiations
+20%
  • Air traditions
  • Baden traditions
  • Lorraine traditions
  • Maravi traditions
  • Sadiyan traditions
  • Berber idea 3: Trans−Saharan Trade
  • Dali idea 2: The Tea-Horse Route
  • Hausan idea 4: Sarakunan Kasuwa
  • Khivan idea 3: Oasis of Merv
  • Nizhny Novgorod idea 1: At The Confluence Of Giants
  • Odoyev idea 7: Strengthen the Oka River Trade
  • Persian idea 4: Improve the Silk Road
  • Songhai idea 7: Trans-Sahara Trade
  • Tumbuka idea 5: Inter-African Trade
  • Yarkandi idea 1: Northern Silk Road
+15%
  • Pskovian traditions
  • Kangra idea 5: Strengthen the Mountain Trade
+10%
  • Nubian idea 4: Encourage Long-Distance Trade

Embargo[edit]

Embargoing is an option in the diplomacy screen that allows a country to leverage their trade power against another nation's, decreasing that nation's trade power in shared trade nodes. The trade screen shows icons for each nation embargoed and those embargoing your nation. Placing the mouse over each nation icon breaks down the penalties in each shared trade node.

Embargoing a country has the following effects:[7]

  • The defending country suffers a penalty to trade power in all trade nodes that both countries have power in. The base magnitude of the penalty is half of the attacker's trade power share in the trade node before the embargo. This penalty stacks multiplicatively with other modifiers.
  • The defending country's opinion of the attacking country is modified by -15. The defender also gains a Trade Dispute casus belli against the attacker unless the embargo is mutual.
  • The attacking country's trade efficiency suffers a -5% penalty unless the defender is a rival.
  • Embargoes do not count against the Diplomatic Relation limit.
  • The attacking country gains up to +10 Power Projection.png power projection if the target is a rival, the amount depending on how severely the embargo affects the target's trade.

Embargo Efficiency can be increased by the following:

Embargo efficiency.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+33%
  • English traditions
+25%
  • Espionage idea 6: Privateers
  • Offensive-Trade: The Anti-Smuggling Act
+10%
  • Betsimisaraka idea 2: Pirate Ports
  • Cypriot idea 7: Raid Turkish Commerce
  • Malagasy idea 3: Pirate Ports
  • Montenegrin idea 4: Balkan Gusars
  • Naxian idea 3: Archipelago Of Opportunities
  • Pomeranian idea 1: Legacy of Pirates

Merchants[edit]

Merchants are envoys used to alter the default trade route behavior by collecting or steering trade. Merchants must be stationed at a trade node to do their work and can only travel a distance defined by a country's trade range, which increases with diplomatic technology, idea groups, and national ideas.

Note that employing merchants is not obligatory for trade system to function. Every nation will automatically collect from its home node, and send trade towards it if possible. Merchants are normally used for:

  • collecting in nodes other than home node,
  • trade steering, that is, controlling by which way outgoing trade value is transferred downstream,
  • as a prerequisite for sending light ships to protect trade in nodes where nation has no initial trade power.

Gaining merchants[edit]

Every country has a base of Merchants.png 2 merchants. Permanent means of acquiring more include:

Merchants.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+1
  • American traditions
  • Bulgarian traditions
  • Catalan traditions
  • Hormuz traditions
  • Pegu traditions
  • Pskovian traditions
  • Expansion idea 2: Additional Merchants
  • Plutocratic idea 4: Free Merchants
  • Trade idea 2: Free Trade
  • Trade idea 5: Overseas Merchants
  • Ando idea 4: Trade Expansion
  • Arakanese idea 3: Bay of Bengal Trade
  • Canadian idea 2: The Hudson Bay Company
  • Candarid idea 1: Genoese Connections
  • Dithmarscher idea 3: Trade Missions
  • Dutch idea 2: Dutch Trading Spirit
  • Estonian idea 5: Baltic Trade
  • Gujarati idea 7: Gujarati Diaspora Descends on Africa
  • Gutnish idea 5: Gutnish Merchant Adventurers
  • Hanseatic idea 2: Strong League Obligations
  • Holstein idea 4: Kieler Umschlag
  • Huron idea 1: Great Lakes Trade
  • Javan idea 4: Pan-Asia Trade
  • Kievan idea 6: Support Local Traders
  • Malayan sultanate idea 1: Indian Ocean Trade
  • Malian idea 6: Seek New Markets for Salt
  • Mogadishan idea 1: Indian Ocean Trade
  • Moluccan idea 3: Agents of Trade
  • Novgorod idea 4: Control of the Hanseatic Kontor
  • Omani idea 7: Expansion of Trade Contacts
  • Ouchi idea 4: The Merchants of Hakata City
  • Pattani idea 5: Entrepôt
  • Pomeranian idea 2: Pomeranian Merchants
  • Portuguese idea 4: Encourage the Bandeirantes
  • Sami idea 3: Regulate Trade with the Southerners
  • Shoni idea 4: Nagasaki City
  • Sinhalese idea 3: Pearl of the Indian Ocean
  • South Indian idea 7: Merchant Capitalists
  • Sumatran idea 5: Merchants of The Indian Ocean
  • Tumbuka idea 7: Welcome Swahili Merchants
  • Full Trade Focus
  • Ashanti ambition
  • Central Indian ambition
  • Galician ambition
  • Interlacustrine ambition
  • Ionian ambition
  • Odoyev ambition
  • Aristocratic-Trade: Trade Connections Policy
  • Defensive-Trade: The Armed Neutrality Act
  • Merchant republics have Merchants.png+1 merchant.
  • Some events can give a national modifier that temporarily provides Merchants.png+1 merchant.
  • The East India Trade Company decision gives Merchants.png+1 merchant. This requires being a country with the western technology group and diplomatic technology at level 10, at least two ports, and one province in the East Asian Trade Ports region owned.
  • Countries that control one of a number of trade nodes have the Confirm Thalassocracy decision (requires all maritime ideas and control of several specific trade nodes), which gives Merchants.png+1 merchant.
  • Nations get Merchants.png+1 merchant for each trade company they control with the majority of the provincial trade power in a region.
  • Countries receive Merchants.png+1 merchant for each colonial nation with at least 10 provinces.
  • The Tengri Tengri religion with syncretic faith Zoroastrianism.png Zoroastrian provides Merchants.png+1 merchant.

Trade range[edit]

Merchants can only reach nodes at this distance from a cored province (or a cored province of a subject nation or a nation granting Naval Basing Rights). The distance is measured to the central province of the node, visible on the trade map mode. Base trade range is increased by Diplomatic technology (100 at tech 1 and 400 at tech 32) and some decisions and ideas.

  • Trade Range is increased by certain ideas and policies.
Trade range.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+33%
  • Ryukyuan idea 4: Maritime Commercialism
+30%
  • Portuguese traditions
+25%
  • Swahili traditions
  • Trade idea 3: Merchant Adventures
+20%
  • Ayutthayan idea 5: Promotion of Trading links
  • Gujarati idea 2: Jain Connections
  • Kono idea 6: Trade with Continental Asia
  • Mesoamerican idea 7: Obsidian and Jade
  • Mogadishan idea 1: Indian Ocean Trade
  • Pacific Northwest idea 2: Dugout Canoes
  • South Indian idea 1: Merchants of Southern India
  • Naval-Exploration: Skilled Cartographers
+15%
  • Traditions of The Hansa
  • Sumatran traditions
+10%
  • Dutch idea 2: Dutch Trading Spirit
  • Mamluk idea 1: Red Sea Trade

Merchant actions[edit]

Merchants can be sent to a trade node to perform one of two missions (as denoted in game interface):

  • Collect from trade sets merchant to convert trade value into trade income.
The merchant sent to collect from trade node grants a +10% bonus to trade income. Note that nations will automatically collect from their home nodes even if they do not have a merchant present. Collecting trade income from a non-home node halves the country's trade power in that node. (The tooltip shows additive penalty to display -50% penalty applied multiplicatively after all bonuses. For example, if a nation has a +40% trade power modifier before the collecting penalty, the listed penalty will be -50%*140%, that is, -70%.)
  • Transfer trade power (This is a misnomer[8]) Allows the user to steer trade value.
This allows the nation to choose the downstream link to transport value to. The destination link can be selected in Trade mapmode. Note that in the case of no merchant presence, the nation will still transport value to some link, but this default link is not configurable. Every steering merchant grants a nation +10% bonus to trade power in home node (capped at +100% for 10 merchants) but that applies only if no merchant is collecting in a non-home node.

Trade income[edit]

The trade income a nation collects in a trade node is calculated as follows:

\text{trade income} = \text{total trade value}\, \cdot\, \text{trade power share}\, \cdot\, (100%\, +\,\sum \text{trade efficiency})

Trade efficiency[edit]

Trade efficiency is added as a bonus modifier to trade income. Base trade efficiency is defined by diplomatic technology but it can also be increased by certain ideas and policies (capped at +200%).

Trade efficiency.png Diplomatic tech.png Diplomatic technology
+5% level 3
+10% level 5
+15% level 10
+20% level 13
+25% level 16
+30% level 20
+35% level 24
+40% level 28
+45% level 30
+50% level 32
Trade efficiency.png National modifiers
+20% Diplomatic tech.png Diplomatic technology: Ahead of time
+15% Admiral.png Admiral with ‘Extortioner’ trait
+10%
  • ruler with ‘Entrepreneur’ personality
  • Government republic.png Constitutional Republic
  • Government republic.png Dutch Republic
  • Government republic.png Free City
  • Government republic.png Trading City
  • Advisor Trader.png Trader as advisor
  • Zoroastrianism.png Zoroastrian religion
  • Norse Deity Njord Njord deity (Norse.png Norse religion)
  • Hindu Deity Surya Surya deity (Hinduism Hindu religion)
  • Monthly fervor increase.png Fervent focus on trade (Reformed.png Reformed religion)
  • Tengri Tengri religion syncretic faith Sunni Islam Sunni
+5%
+20% −10% Burghers.png Burghers estate
(depends on influence and loyalty)
−5% for every Embargoing.png embargo against non-rival countries
−10%
  • ruler with ‘Indulgent’ personality
  • during the Aristocratic Coup.png Aristocratic Coup disaster
Trade efficiency.png Local modifiers
+10% Trade office.png merchant present
Trade efficiency.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+20%
  • Trade-Administrative: Importation Act
  • Trade-Quality: Cloth Quality Edict
+15%
  • Tuscan idea 5: Porto Franco
  • Dutch ambition
+10%
  • Ando traditions
  • Aragonese traditions
  • Beloozero traditions
  • Canadian traditions
  • Danziger traditions
  • Genoese traditions
  • Irish traditions
  • Italian traditions
  • Kongo traditions
  • Krakowian traditions
  • Neapolitan traditions
  • Ragusan traditions
  • Shoni traditions
  • Sinhalese traditions
  • Venetian traditions
  • Württemberger traditions
  • Yarkandi traditions
  • Trade idea 4: National Trade Policy
  • Air idea 1: Taghlamt
  • Anatolian idea 5: Caravanserais
  • Arakanese idea 7: Arakanese Trade Contracts
  • Bahmani idea 4: Karimis
  • Bengali idea 2: Ganges-Brahmaputra Confluence
  • Beninese idea 7: Regulation of Trade
  • Berber idea 3: Trans−Saharan Trade
  • Bremish idea 4: Free Imperial City of Bremen
  • Burgundian idea 5: Integrate the Towns in the Estates General
  • Butua idea 7: Vashambadzi
  • Carib idea 1: River Trade
  • Cham idea 6: Agarwood
  • Chickasaw idea 5: Slave Raids
  • Circassian idea 3: Circassian Grain Trade
  • English idea 4: The Navigation Acts
  • Greek idea 5: Control the Mediterranean Trade
  • Gujarati idea 6: Foreign Merchants set up Factories
  • Hormuz idea 1: A Vast Emporium
  • Imagawa idea 2: Control of Tokaido
  • Ionian idea 4: Gate to the Adriatic
  • Javan idea 7: Terracotta Banking System
  • Kaffan idea 7: Trade Reform
  • Kazani idea 7: End Western Domination
  • Khivan idea 5: Amu Darya
  • Khmer idea 4: River Trade
  • Kongolese idea 7: The Ivory Trade
  • Kutai idea 1: Earliest Indic State
  • Ladakh idea 7: Invite Far-Away Traders
  • Laotian idea 6: Southern Silk Road
  • Malagasy idea 6: Control of the Foreign Traders
  • Malian idea 7: West African Slave Trade
  • Malvi idea 3: Protect the Delhi-Surat Trade Route
  • Mamluk idea 7: Monopoly Ports
  • Medri Bahri idea 1: Kings of the Sea
  • Ming idea 5: Restore the Salt Monopoly
  • Mogadishan idea 5: Mogadishan Currency
  • Moldavian idea 7: Moldavian Trade
  • Moluccan idea 1: The Spice Islands
  • Mutapan idea 6: Curva
  • Nizhny Novgorod idea 6: Open Up The River Trade
  • Omani idea 4: Port Security Improvements
  • Orissan idea 6: Encourage the Salt Trade
  • Ottoman idea 6: Tulip Period
  • Pegu idea 1: Riches of Pegu
  • Permian idea 4: Great Perm
  • Polotskian idea 5: Trade Hub
  • Pomeranian idea 6: Dominate the Baltic
  • Portuguese idea 7: Open up the Guilds
  • Pueblo idea 4: Cotton Weaving
  • Punjabi idea 2: Encourage Indo−Persian Trade
  • Rajput idea 7: Rajput Trading Houses
  • Rostov idea 4: Entrepot of Russia
  • Ryukyuan idea 5: Sign Trade Agreements
  • Sadiyan idea 5: Dihang
  • Siddi idea 6: Konkan Trade
  • Silesian idea 5: Via Regia
  • Sligonian idea 1: Promote the Trade
  • Somali idea 5: Indian Ocean Trade
  • Sukhothai idea 3: Sawankalok Ware
  • Sumatran idea 1: Reliance on Trade
  • Swahili idea 1: Indian Ocean Trade
  • Tapuian idea 6: Open Trade Routes
  • Tarascan idea 3: Merchant-Officials
  • Theodorian idea 4: Port Avlita
  • Tirhuti idea 2: Gateway to India
  • Tverian idea 1: Tverian Merchants
  • Venetian idea 3: Stato da Màr
  • Vindhyan idea 6: Diamond Mines
  • Andean ambition
  • Couronian ambition
  • Estonian ambition
  • Gutnish ambition
  • Ambition of The Hansa
  • Kono ambition
  • Navarran ambition
  • Ouchi ambition
  • Pagarruyung ambition
  • Pattani ambition
  • South Indian ambition
  • Sulawesi ambition
  • Tumbuka ambition
  • Innovative-Trade: The Banking System
  • Maritime-Offensive: Naval Convoy System
  • Naval-Administrative: Harbor Administration
  • Naval-Trade: Fortified Trading Posts
  • Offensive-Trade: The Anti-Smuggling Act
  • Trade-Economic: The Statute of Monopolies
  • Trade-Expansion: Encouragement of Merchant Navy
+5%
  • Huron traditions
  • Portuguese traditions
  • German idea 2: Frühlings- und Herbstmesse
  • Mesoamerican idea 7: Obsidian and Jade
  • West African idea 6: The Great River

Privateering[edit]

Main article: Naval warfare#Privateering

Any fleet that contains light ships can be sent on a privateering mission to any trade node within trade range. The fleet will hoist the Jolly Roger and add the trade power of its light ships (plus a bonus) to a dummy "pirate" nation in the node, thus reducing the trade power share of everyone in the node - including their controller, though a portion of the trade value lost this way is returned to the controller, listed in accounts as "spoils of war". Unlike protecting trade, privateers can be sent to nodes a nation has no power in, making it a way of weakening the nation's enemies or gaining revenue from nodes it can't touch otherwise. Privateering a rival's trade generates power projection.

Hunt pirates[edit]

Main article: Naval warfare#Hunt pirates

This mission is available to fleets which contain at least one ship that isn't a transport. Fleets containing heavy ships or light ships may hunt pirates in any non-inland trade node; however, fleets containing only galleys (as well as fleets which are a mixture of galleys and transports) can only hunt pirates in nodes where all nearby sea provinces are inland seas.

Pirate-hunting fleets reduce the trade power taken by the dummy "pirates" nation in the chosen trade node by reducing their privateer efficiency. They do not actually damage or take damage from any ships.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. https://youtu.be/3DqT8aKwdzw
  2. https://youtu.be/lfyYldaGtCg
  3. https://youtu.be/qKKcyaMmdjI
  4. https://youtu.be/mrMtnIasjSM
  5. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt (Static_modifiers#Mercantilism).
  6. http://www.eu4wiki.com/Trade_company
  7. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3utb0ECjWDk
  8. https://youtu.be/cFVL8UUtmbY
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