From Europa Universalis 4 Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Kingdom rankEngland
Primary culture
English (British)

Capital province
London (236)

English MonarchyGovernment monarchy.png

State religion

Technology group
WesternWestern technology group
English ideas
Traditions.png Traditions:
+33% Embargo efficiency
+20% Morale of navies

Heavy ship power.png A Royal Navy

+10% Heavy ship combat ability
+0.25 Yearly navy tradition

National tax modifier.png The Eltham Ordinance

+15% National tax modifier

Diplomatic upkeep.png Secretaries of State

+1 Diplomatic relations

Trade efficiency.png The Navigation Acts

+10% Trade efficiency

National unrest.png English Bill of Rights

-1 National unrest
+10% Global tariffs

Discipline.png Reform of Commission Buying

+5% Discipline

Ship durability.png The Sick and Hurt Board

+5% Ship durability

Idea bonus.png Ambitions:

+1 Free leader(s) without upkeep

England is one of the strongest countries at EU4's start point of (1444) and can potentially form Great Britain. If England does not exist at any point it can be formed by any nation with English culture. The first English king in the game is Henry VI Lancaster (0/0/0).

One of England's main strategic advantages is its strong natural borders providing a good barrier to invasion. It is possible to then strengthen these borders dramatically in a number of relatively cheap ways, meaning England can still involve itself in the continent from a position of safety or choose to isolate itself and spread its influence overseas. The country is also in a strong economic position able to control and eventually dominate trade from the Baltic, Africa and North America.


Main article: English missions

England's missions are mainly focused around conquering the British Isles, colonizing the Americas and Australia, conquering India and dominating overseas trade.


Main article: English events

England has one of the richest and best known histories, making it a treasure trove for Dynamic Historical Events. Some of the more relevant events and event chains are listed below.

End of the Hundred Years War[edit]

If England has lost all of its French possessions (excluding Calais) an event will trigger to end the Hundred Years' War. Accepting the loss will have England lose all cores in any province in the French region they do not own, gain 1 stability, and gain a +50 opinion bonus with France. Not giving up will result in a loss of 1 stability and a large opinion malus with France.

The Lollard Heresy[edit]

Any time before 1500 England may have to choose whether to tolerate or suppress the Lollards. Choosing suppression will remove 1 stability, deduct a sizeable amount from the treasury, and grant +20 revolt risk in 3 provinces. It also adds a modifier that gives +1 tolerance of the true faith and +1 Papal influence per year till game end. Choosing tolerance will remove 1 stability point and reduce relations with France, Burgundy, Brittany, and the Papal State by 50.This also gives +1 tolerance of heretics and -1 papal influence till the end of the game. After this point, Lollard heretic rebels may appear, increasing local autonomy in provinces they occupy and causing massively reduced papal influence if they win.

War of the Roses[edit]

If England in the 15th century has a ruler without an heir, the War of the Roses will have a chance of triggering. Whether England is at war or not does not matter. A brief sketch of what happens is as follows:

  1. The childless ruler of England will get a severe 50% malus to the chance of a new heir appearing. This does not mean that there is no chance of new heirs - and events that give new heirs, e.g. A Child in the Reeds, can still trigger during the period. If an heir is born both the malus and the threat of the War of the Roses will disappear for the rest of the game.
  2. The War of the Roses will begin. The ruler will die and a choice to back either the Yorkist or the Lancastrian claimant to the throne is given. Choosing York will generate a new Yorkist dynasty, while choosing Lancaster will generate a new (i.e. not related to the previous monarch even if he was Lancastrian) Lancastrian dynasty.
  3. In line with house chosen, a new king will ascend to the throne of England. At the same time, a sizeable stack (a late-1400s War of the Roses will generate a 16-unit stack) of Pretenders from the other house will appear (usually in Yorkshire or Lancashire depending on the house they are from).
  4. Owned provinces will then begin declaring for either Lancaster or York. Provinces that support the ruling house will receive -3 revolt risk, while those supporting the rebelling house will get +10 revolt risk.
  5. Whole regions will also declare for the rebelling house, giving the option to reduce revolt risk in those provinces by 3 at the cost of high tax and manpower penalties, or increase revolt risk by 10 and spawn more rebels. Nobles in some provinces may support the ruling house, but are growing concerned, giving the option to give them ducats as gift or having reduced manpower and tax income from those provinces. Soldiers may desert, reducing manpower, lowering tax, or increasing revolt risk. Neighboring countries may also become involved in the war by supplying the rebels.
  6. When at least a year has passed, all rebels have been put down, stability has been increased to at least 1, and the current monarch has a living heir, the War of the Roses may come to an end. All negative modifiers will be removed, stability will be increased by 1 and England will gain 50 prestige. The war may also end when the rebels break the country and manage to take over the throne, though this will result in a massive drop of 50 prestige.

The English Civil War[edit]

From 1600 to 1700 England/Great Britain may have another major event chain: English Civil War. This is more likely to happen if the Court of the Star Chamber event already occurred. A brief sketch is as follows:

  1. A choice to support the Royalists or the Parliamentarians will be given. Royalists keep the status quo, while Parliamentarians change the country to a Republican Dictatorship ruled by Oliver Cromwell. Stability will be reduced by -3 and a massive stack of pretender rebels (around 25 units in the mid-1600s) will appear somewhere on the island of Great Britain.
  2. Events can occur that may spawn rebels in Ireland and Wales if money concessions are not given. Catholic England/Great Britain can get extra events that may spawn pretender rebels in Scotland. The Pride's Purge event will also spawn more rebels in the British Isles. In addition, events about the creating of the New Model Army can occur, giving the option for temporarily stronger armies and navies at the cost increased revolt risk and reduced manpower, or a small manpower increase.
  3. After at least a year of civil war, if stability is at least 1 and all rebels have been defeated, the English Civil War will come to an end. Stability will increase by 2 and the country will gain 50 prestige.


If England reaches Administrative tech.png administrative level 10 and owns the Highlands and Lothian in Scotland, England can form Great Britain Great Britain. Doing so grants claims on all of the British Isles (including Orkney). Alternatively, if England has Scotland as a vassal or junior union partner, they can form Great Britain diplomatically. This is how it happened historically (with a PU).

Execute decision.pngForm British Nation

By uniting our political development domestically and extending our influence beyond our borders we will be able to reinforce our position in world affairs and transform into one of the foremost European powers, the British Empire.

Potential Requirements Allow
  • Has an administrative technology of at least level 10.
  • Is not a subject nation.
  • Is not at war.
  • Is not a nomad nation.
  • Owns the core Province icon.png provinces:
    • Wessex (234)
    • London (236)
    • Oxfordshire (237)
    • Lothian (248)
    • Aberdeenshire (251)

  • Gain “Increased Centralization” modifier for 20 years:
    • -0.05 Autonomy.png Monthly autonomy change
    • +1 National unrest.png National unrest
  • If a member of the HRE and not an elector, all own provinces are removed from the HRE.

Execute decision.pngForm British Nation Diplomatically

By uniting our political development domestically and extending our influence beyond our borders we will be able to reinforce our position in world affairs and transform into one of the foremost European powers, the British Empire.

Potential Requirements

Any of the following:

  • Is England England
If is AI controlled:
Has Scotland Scotland as junior partner or as vassal
If is AI controlled:
Has England England as junior partner or as vassal

  • Gain “Increased Centralization” modifier for 20 years:
    • -0.05 Autonomy.png Monthly autonomy change
    • +1 National unrest.png National unrest
  • If a member of the HRE and not an elector, all own provinces are removed from the HRE.

Other decisions[edit]

Besides, this, England also has several unique decisions, most of which are shared with Great Britain:

Execute decision.pngEstablish British Merchant Navy

Being an island nation we are always going to be dependent on the sea for trade. So we must promote the merchant marine to ensure our trade prospers.

Potential Requirements
  • Any of the following:
    • Country is England
    • Country is Great Britain
  • Diplomatic tech.png Diplomatic technology is at least 15
  • Does not have the country modifier "British Merchant Navy"
  • Has at least 5 Maritime ideas
  • Monthly income is at least 60 Gold Icon.png ducats
  • Trade is at least 33% of the Tradeview income.png country's income
  • Has the Idea bonus.png idea Grand Navy
  • Has the Idea bonus.png idea National Trade Policy

  • Adds the modifier "British Merchant Navy" for the rest of the campaign:
    • +5% Global tariffs.png Global tariffs

Execute decision.pngSing 'Britannia Rules the Waves'

Rule Britannia!
Britannia rule the waves.
Britons never, never, never shall be slaves.

Potential Requirements
  • Any of the following:
    • Country is England
    • Country is Great Britain
  • Does not have the country modifier "Britannia Rules the Waves"
  • Has at least 30 Province icon.png ports
  • Has at least 50 Bigship.png heavy ships
  • Has at least 50 Lightship.png light ships

  • Adds the modifier "Britannia Rules the Waves" for the rest of the campaign:
    • +1 Naval leader maneuver.png Naval leader maneuver

Execute decision.pngDesignate Calais as The Staple Port

In order to effectively tax things we need to regulate them. If we were to designate Calais as the sole point of import for the wool staple we would improve our tax revenues dramatically.

Potential Requirements
  • Country is England
  • Owns Calais
  • Calais doesn't have "The Staple Port" province modifier
  • Is not at war
  • Ruler's Administrative power.png Administrative Skill is at least 2
  • Has at least Administrative power.png 40 Administrative Power
  • England doesn't own Antwerpen

  • Antwerpen's Owner
    • Adds the opinion modifier "Designated Calais as the Staple Port" towards England
      • -150 Opinion
      • Lasts 10 years
      • Decays by 1 each year
  • Increase Mercantilism.png mercantilism by 10%
  • Change Administrative power.png Administrative power by -40
  • Calais gets provincial modifier 'the_staple_port'
    • +500% Local trade power.png Province trade power
    • +50% Local tax modifier.png Local tax modifier


England can be formed by any country with English culture that controls southeast England if it has ceased to exist.

Execute decision.pngForm English Nation

Trade has long been a foundation of English national policy. By extending our influence across borders and controlling its political development domestically, we have managed to become one of the foremost European powers. Our colonial expansion is becoming a major factor in promoting our nation's economic growth, reinforcing our position in world affairs.
Potential Requirements
  • Playing with normal or historical nations
  • If AI-controlled:
    • Is not playing a custom nation
    • Is not a former colonial nation
  • Is not England England
  • Great Britain Great Britain does not exist
  • Is not the Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire or The Papal State The Papal State
  • Primary culture is English
  • Is not a colonial nation
  • Is not at war
  • Is not a subject nation
  • Is not a steppe horde
  • England England does not exist
  • Owns core provinces London, Oxfordshire, Wessex, Kent and Essex

  • Country becomes England England
  • If a non-Elector member of the Holy Roman Empire, all provinces leave the Holy Roman Empire
  • Set government rank to Kingdom rank Kingdom if currently Duchy rank Duchy
  • England England gains a permanent claim on all provinces in the Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Wales and Wessex areas that it does not already own
  • Gain country modifier "Increased Centralization" for 7300 days:
    • Autonomy.png -0.05 Monthly autonomy change
    • National unrest.png +1 National unrest
  • Gain Prestige.png 25 prestige
  • Change capital to London


England in 1444 is a powerful country that nevertheless is facing severe pressure on the Continent and a latent threat in the form of Scotland to the north. Expansion opportunities abound in the British Isles and in the windswept islands of the North Atlantic.

Later on, England is well-placed to colonize the lands of North America, while potentially facing vicious competition from Spain and Portugal. The Reformation will affect England greatly and will be the most prolonged and severe rebel event the player will likely face in the entire game.

Going into the 1600s, England/Great Britain will have to leverage its island position to balance against the hegemons of the continent. It may also have to think about expansion into the riches of Asia and perhaps most importantly, what is historically destined to become the 'Jewel in the Crown' - India.

As of patch 1.12, England no longer starts at war with France allowing other opportunities before trying to take down France such as invading Burgundy, Brittany, Scotland, or Ireland. Also, all French vassals have been removed, making France weaker, however, this frees up diplomatic relation slots for potential French allies, including Aragon. Patch 1.12 is also the easiest patch to try and achieve "One night in Paris" as England can fabricate a claim directly on the French capital.

Starting situation and first steps[edit]

England starts with a large army, second in size only to Austria among European nations. France is a serious threat, and will only grow more powerful on the continent, but they have few ports - and thus a low naval forcelimit - due to Brittany, Provence, and English control of Normandy and Gascogne. However, they have a strong army and deep manpower reserves. To the north, on the British Isles, lies Scotland, and to the west across rhe Irish Sea are the ever-fighting Irish OPMs Leinster, Munster, Connacht and Tyrone. Bordering England in Europe are Provence and Brittany in the west, Navarra in the south by Gascogne, Burgundy and its vassals by Calais and the Low Countries, and France.

Scotland, France and Burgundy will all likely oppose English ambitions, and the player is recommended to rival them immediately. Irish minors may extend alliance offers, but they bring little value and make better targets of conquest than friends. Austria's interests align well with England's, and may prove a useful balance against France. As you start without an heir, the almost inevitable War of the Roses disaster will approach in the early years of the game, but this can be easily managed. When you have crushed the rebel forces, you could fabricate a claim on Brittany (Armor and Finistere) and invade. This will increase the player's presence in Europe while also preventing easy French expansion. Provence and Navarra make attractive targets for expansion on the European continent.

The greatest liability England carries into the 1444 start is its King, Henry VI Lancaster, with 0/0/0 skills. Unless Henry dies quickly - perhaps with the player putting him in a series of life-threatening situations - early English technological progress will be slow.

England's starting position heavily incentivizes pursuing one of two strategies: European expansion, or colonization. These are not mutually exclusive, but the player may wish to focus their resources on one or the other. Definitely try to take down Scotland when the French guarantee is over. Also try to landlock France if possible, to make them less of a threat when colonizing. If winning decisively against France, also retake Armagnac, an English core inland from Gascogne. Things might change rapidly in the early game, Austria might lose the Imperial Throne, France might blob early, Castile might fail in gaining the PU over Aragon, anything can happen. But if you have followed the steps above, you shouldn't be defeated in the first place.

A Detailed Breakdown of the English situation in 1444[edit]

Armies: 26 units in total - all around the London area

Navies: 34 ships split into 2 fleets in London, of which 10 are transport ships.

Diplomacy: 4 diplomats available. Allied with Portugal. Generally Castile, Burgundy and France will rival England from the start; sometimes Austria.

Miscellaneous: France has 28 troops next to Normandy. Burgundy will likely declare war for Calais if English power is sapped. Scotland is guaranteed by France until 1464 and will likely ally with a combination of Irish minors (save Ulster), Sweden or Novgorod. Portugal is likely to declare war on Morocco within the decade. Irish minors won't ally with anybody outside of the British Isles and will fabricate claims on each other immediately. Sweden is highly likely to declare war on Denmark within 5 years and will do so periodically after that. Novgorod will be pressured severely by Moscow.

Securing the British Isles and Colonial Conquest[edit]

While England has attractive opportunities in France, competing on the Continent requires a heavy commitment of manpower, gold, and monarch points. If the player does not wish to win the Hundred Year's War but rather focus upon expanding across the Atlantic, they may abandon their continental holdings and focus upon a colonial strategy.

As England and France begin the game at peace, it may not prove necessary to hand over England's holdings in Normandy and Aquitaine. However, if the player loses manpower to war or rebellion later on, France or Burgundy may take advantage of England's weakened position to launch an offensive war. The player may prepare for this by releasing Normandy and Gascony as marches, though this will eat into England's diplomatic relations limit. The player can then focus on building their navy and preparing for war with Scotland. They may either wait for France to be sufficiently distracted by war on the mainland that they fail to honor their guarantee of Scotland, rely upon the fleet to prevent French intervention, or wait for the guarantee to expire. Whatever course, consolidation of the British Isles will put the player in a strong position to begin colonizing. Connacht and the Western Isles both place England within striking distance of North American colonial provinces in Greenland and thus must be conquered if the player wished to colonize as early as diplomatic tech level 7. Taking Iceland will not allow for any earlier colonization, but will place England within range of more attractive colonies in Newfoundland.

From here, England's colonial range will quickly open up to the entirety of the Americas. However, failing to expand in continental Europe will create serious liabilities in trade power. While England has highly advantageous provinces for trade power in the English Channel end node on Great Britain, Holland and Normandy also have important centers of trade, which will continue to sap trade power and profit from England as the game proceeds. Thus, the player may wish to retain limited holdings on the European coast without funneling resources into outright victory in the Hundred Year's War. Taking Holland or Antwerp during a moment of Burgundian weakness will reap long-term benefits for a colonial England. Retaining Normandy and Gascony will also grant England trade power in the English Channel and Bordeaux nodes, and with a limited war on France, England can cut France off from the Atlantic altogether. A powerful and consolidated France may make holding onto any continental territory impossible. In this case, the loss of tax revenue can be compensated for with expansion overseas, and light ships are a cheap alternative for regaining trade power.

Fast colonization early strategy[edit]

You can choose strategy of abandoning your French possessions and start early colonization. In that case, immediately evacuate your forces from Normandy to home, move your Labourd forces to Navarra/Castile/Aragon to save them from destroying before you are able to evacuate them as well and start to fabricate claim on Scotland (best on some province from which you can later claim Norwegian Orkneys). Do not end the War with France before you start a war with Scotland. Otherwise France will be dragged into the war with you again due to independence guarantee, and then it will become much more complicated to earn enough war score. You can start fabricate claim also on Scotland's Irish ally. Once in war with Scotland, peace France with giving up as few provinces as possible (you can sell out the rest later, e.g. Labourd to Navarra or to some of French vassals and Calais to Burgundy - this will strengthen a bit France's enemies or France will have to spend more diplo power to annex its vassal. Scotland often support Sweden's independence and thus goes into war with Denmark/Norway very early starting with siege of Orkney. In this case you can easily block this army by your fleet and destroy the rest of land forces which popup somewhere in Scotland. Defeating Irish minor is easy. Once you siege almost whole Scotland+Irish minor (usually not required the whole Scotland), you should have enough war score to take the Irish minor, one Scottish province and vassalize the rest of Scotland. This will probably result in a coalition against you (some Irish minor, Denmark and some smaller German coastal states) but you can concern it unimportant as your homeland is secured by your strong navy and no country will be able to compete you at sea for many years. If Burgundy declared a war on you already, let them siege Calais and give it up. If not, just sell it to them if possible. Claim Orkney (and possibly Irish minor which is in coalition against you together with Denmark) and start war. Siege all Norwegian Isles and destroy Danish and Norwegian fleets. If you don't have enough war score, just siege Gotland, Bornholm and another Danish isles while blocking its land forces to enter it. Better to avoid of land battles unless you can highly outnumber the enemy. Get some isles from Norway in the peace treaty (Iceland, Faroe, Shetlands) but not Orkney as you will need its claim for starting another war. If you have enough war score and want to spend some diplo power, you can also force Denmark to return some provinces to Sweden (5 possible provinces with Swedish cores already). In next similar war/wars you can take rest of Norwegian isles plus Bergenshus (the only trade-important province in North Sea trade node). You can ally Sweden (probably already independent) and use it in next wars with Denmark - unless Denmark has strong land allies (Poland, Muscovy, etc.). You can try to help to recover Sweden's former fame and make them a stronger mainland ally but sooner or later Sweden will have to deal with stronger enemies Muscovy/Russia or Poland/Commonwealth dragging you into their land wars. Since now you can concentrate on colonization of Greenland or Bermuda or also claim and take some other Norwegian mainland North Sea provinces to strengthen your trade position here even more. If you choose Exploration and Expansion, try to save also as much money as possible because the oncoming spread of Protestantism will be probably expensive for you. Other good idea groups are Religious (always helpful also for country conquering overseas nations), Quality/Offensive/Defensive to improve your land forces and Trade to increase your income. You should be able to dominate the seas also without Naval or Maritime idea groups if you have enough income to maintain large heavy fleet.


There are several Trade Nodes that England (and later Great Britain) has an interest in:

English Channel: England's home trade node, from which England automatically collects money. It draws trade from Champagne, Lübeck, North Sea, Chesapeake Bay, and Ivory Coast. It has no outgoing connections. Continental competitors include Burgundy, France, and Utrecht, which will generate competing trade power from continental centers of trade and light ships. Hansa and Netherlands may also compete for trade in the node after 1500.

Bordeaux: France's default trade node although not its home trade node. From patch 1.12, it is no longer an end trade node.

Chesapeake Bay: This trade node, which feeds directly into English Channel, covers a vast chunk of North American territory. English/British colonial dominance there should provide trade power to feed to London quite easily. Depending on the scenario loaded or game progress, competition can come from a range of European nations.

Ivory Coast: This node spans all of the coat (not the interior) of western sub-Saharan Africa, and is the collection point for trade from South America, coastal Africa, and Asia. It feeds into English Channel, and various other Western European nodes. Ivory Coast becomes increasingly lucrative as European trade presence expands around Africa and into India and Asia, and merchants steer trade along the coast and away from the old Silk Road. Control of this node can be established easily early on by colonizing the node's sole center of trade: Ivory Coast. With Wealth of Nations, this should also give the player the 51% of provincial trade power necessary to obtain a free trade company merchant. Principal mid-game competitors may include Portugal, France, Spain, Mali, and Kongo. Challenging them may require light ships, especially if the player does not control the West African coastal provinces.

North Sea: The North Sea trade node feeds into English Channel and Lübeck. It draws trade from Canada and White Sea. Maintaining trade power here can be difficult without provinces, as trade fleets operating here often sail into the North Sea zone and incur attrition. Before 1500, the primary competition comes from Norway and Scotland. Once the player annexes Scotland and its center of trade at Lothian, light ships will be required to prevent continental trade powers such as Hansa and the Scandinavians from diverting trade out of North Sea to their home node in Lübeck. An ambitious player may attempt to dominate the node using provinces by annexing Bergenshus, North Sea's second center of trade, from Norway.

General tips: Trade buildings should be prioritized in provinces with innate trade power bonuses, especially outside Europe where the player can form trade companies to further boost provincial trade power. While trade buildings are less efficient than light ships, they are also not subject to force limits and so should be used where necessary to supplement light ships. Light ships should be used to dominate the English Channel node early on, with a smaller trade fleet in North Sea. Privateer missions in the Sevilla and Bordeaux nodes can both generate income, diminish opponent income, and generate power projection.

Securing bases, either from allies or conquest, around the world can greatly improve England's influence on the game. The ability to operate on any sea in the world from an early stage is very useful, especially in the Mediterranean Sea where the player may threaten the trade of powerful players like Spain, Italy and the Ottoman Empire.

War and diplomacy[edit]

Naval: England's navy is her primary sword and shield. Ships allow England to steer trade, transport troops around the globe, and blockade entire countries. A strong navy makes winning Colonial Wars easy, as England is able to occupy the desired enemy provinces and allow warscore to gradually tick up in the player's favor while the enemy's army remains locked in Europe.

Organically, England has a naval forcelimit of 51 in 1444 and with some expansion this goes up to 100-130 in 1570s. Boosts to the Naval Ideas group can increase your forcelimit by 25%. Level 3, 5 and 6 naval buildings can increase the total forcelimit further.

England must always maintain a first rate navy if it is to survive in Europe. In the early game it is possible to skimp on Heavy Ships because they cost so much to maintain and build, but this ceases to be an option by the 1550s as the giants of Spain, Portugal + colonial nations (who are usually allied with each other) begin to field navies of more than 200 ships in total - and don't think they won't send everything they have to destroy you!

However, a balance between Heavy and Light ships is also required because trade ships draw in the money needed for England to fuel its war machine. A decent number of transport ships (20 is a good enough number) must also be accounted for to enable England to deploy forces overseas. If England is expecting to conquer India a fleet of 10 Heavies is recommended to take on the fleet of Vijayanagar.

Given the huge investment required for England to rebuild its navy, the player can ill afford to be cavalier with how he uses his ships. Monitoring naval attrition is a tedious task but it is one that must be done - as a tip, initially England's supply ship range stretch from Skagerrak (above Copenhagen) to the east to the Western Coast of Ireland to the west; from Iceland in the north to the coast of Vizcaya in the south.

In patch 1.5, naval battles has been made more decisive and generally end with the loser losing his entire fleet to enemy action. Given how critical England's navy is to its security, it is probably the wiser idea to play extremely conservatively in Europe from 1570s onwards, being very cautious about war with naval competitors (Spain + Portugal, even France if you're overstretched), lowering the number of Light Ships in your fleet and stationing the bulk of your force in the British Isles.

Land: The English Army starts with a 35-unit forcelimit in 1444 and it will struggle, even with its myriad conquests in Ireland, Scotland and the far overseas, to raise that - organically, Great Britain in the 1580s will still only receive 45-unit forcelimits - while AI France in the same period is capable of generating 30-unit stacks. English ideas give a +5% to discipline but that will not be enough to overcome this fundamental numerical disparity. Boosts to the Offensive and Quantity idea group will increase this forcelimit.

Acquiring decent manpower in EU4 with England does not seem to be overly difficult and building/funding a decent army is completely feasible for the country. The English player should still rely on quality, not quantity, as its military advantage, fielding a good mix of artillery, infantry and cavalry and supplemented by mercenaries whenever necessary. Generals are a must.

All the same, the best use of England's Army comes from deploying it in strategically useful areas in conjunction with the navy - blocking the bulk of enemy forces with fleets while conducting amphibious descents onto enemy territory and achieving local superiority in numbers.

Against non-Western forces England can perform reasonably well, though without any extra buffs an English army of 10 units will still lose to 40-plus Indian stacks in 1600s, which a large Vijayanagar is fully capable of fielding.

Diplomacy: England by itself is weaker than France or Castile and this disparity will generally grow as you enter the 1500s. As such, they will declare war on you if you are isolated, Castile especially with its 'Colonialism' casus belli. If England goes Protestant, you will also have to contend with a whole host of Catholic nations bent on bringing you back under Rome. While you may be able to fight them by yourself, the better move is to deter hostile countries from attacking you. As such, you need allies.

At the early game England will be allied with Portugal and will have the option of allying with various mid-sized European powers such as Hungary, Austria, Aragon, Venice, etc. Castile, France, Burgundy and sometimes Austria will see fit to rival you. Before the British Isles are unified, England should seek to ally with only one more continental power (bringing the number of its continental allies to two, including Portugal) because this gives you some leeway to vassalize the Irish minors and Scotland.

Central European countries make the best allies because you share few competing interests with them, although you will be dragged into a lot of wars in Germany. Aragon is good as a counterbalance to Castile but you risk losing them once ‘the Iberian wedding' occurs, which is quite likely. Sweden will drag you into numerous battles with Denmark if it is independent in time at all and Venice will be at war with the Ottomans all the time. Obviously just because you're an ally doesn't mean you have to help in any way, however...

Once the British Isles are unified in the early 1500s or thereabout, you get a wider choice of allies although by this time you might also get new rivals, such as Sweden (occasionally), and Austria and Portugal if you are playing a colonial game. Generally, however, don't ally with people you might want to fight later - this applies most clearly to Denmark, which through Norway holds Orkney and the Shetlands. The Reformation will change the face of Europe diplomatically and so it might be worth it to get an ally that is likely going to share your religion (i.e. Northern Europe). Good new allies in this period are Denmark (which is an ideal ally after you take Orkney), Sweden, Poland, or the Hansa.

In the middle-to-late game France might de-list you as a rival, and they might even seek an alliance with you against Spain. It is generally not a good idea to further aggrandize France, however.

Be wary of 'alliance pairs' that have bad blood between each other and will force you to choose when they go to war. Examples include Denmark-Sweden, Denmark-Hansa, France-Portugal, Venice-Austria and Bohemia-Austria-Hungary-Poland, all with each other.

Country guides
Muslim technology group Muslim.png Ethiopia.png EthiopiaThe Mamluks.png The MamluksTunis.png Tunis
Indian technology group Indian.png Mutapa.png Mutapa
Sub-Saharan technology group Sub-Saharan.png Kongo.png Kongo Mali.png Mali Mossi.png Mossi
Eastern technology group Eastern.png Jerusalem.png Jerusalem
Muslim technology group Muslim.png Arabia.png Arabia Hejaz.png Hejaz Khiva.png Khiva Mughals.png Mughals Oman.png Oman Persia.png Persia Shammar.png Shammar
Indian technology group Indian.png Assam.png Assam Bahmanis.png Bahmanis Bengal.png Bengal Ceylon.png Ceylon Gujarat.png Gujarat Jaunpur.png Jaunpur Nepal.png Nepal Orissa.png Orissa Vijayanagar.png Vijayanagar
Chinese technology group Chinese.png Ayutthaya.png Ayutthaya Bali.png Bali Brunei.png Brunei Dai Viet.png Dai Viet Japan.png Japan Khmer.png Khmer Korea.png Korea Lan Xang.png Lan Xang Malaya.png Malaya Ming.png Ming Qing.png Qing Ryukyu.png Ryukyu Sulu.png Sulu Sunda.png Sunda
Nomadic technology group Nomadic.png Jianzhou.png Jianzhou Manchu.png Manchu Timurids.png Timurids Uzbek.png Uzbek
Western technology group Western.png United States of America.png USA
Mesoamerican technology group Mesoamerican.png Aztec.png Aztec Maya.png Maya
North American technology group North American.png Cherokee.png Cherokee Creek.png Creek Huron.png Huron Iroquois.png Iroquois Pueblo.png Pueblo
Andean technology group Andean.png Cusco.png Cusco Muisca.png Muisca
South American technology group South American.png Charrua.png Charrua Guarani.png Guarani Mapuche.png Mapuche