Colonization

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This article may contain outdated information that is inaccurate for the current version of the game. It was last updated for 1.11.

Colonization is one of the gameplay features available within the game as the setting is within the age of colonization. Nations can explore and colonize the continents of the Americas, Asia, Africa and Australia, as well as Siberia and islands in the Pacific.

Objectives[edit]

The essential aim of colonialism is to generally out-perform your other colonizing rivals, through:

  • Prestige and influence: To mold a prestigious global empire, befitting of the player's great nation; and
  • Trade and finance: To maintain dominance and control of global trade by cultivating and steering trade towards the player's capital and vital trade ports.

You should accept that tax and tariffs from the player's colonies will make up the minority of the player's profits, and that high tariffs will increase colonial liberty desire.

AI colonizers[edit]

Not all AI nations will gain colonists, and only a limited number of nations will join the colonial race. An AI nation may gain a colonist via their national ideas or unlocking exploration ideas or expansion ideas.

National ideas:

Exploration:

Expansion:

This does not mean all the aforementioned countries will actually colonize. Some of them might cease to exist early on or never form, while others may get colonists too late to do any meaningful colonization. Also, the AI will not pick exploration ideas or expansion ideas unless it has at least one port.

Discovery[edit]

Although some uncolonized provinces may be visible at the beginning of the game, much of both land and water is covered by terra incognita. Discovering these areas is useful for finding provinces to colonize.

  • An army led by a conquistador can move into terra incognita land provinces and thus discover them. If that land is owned by another country, the conquistador will discover the province instead of moving into it, unless that country grants military access. Skilled conquistadors have a chance to discover adjacent provinces as well. All armies, even those without a conquistador, can march into undiscovered land provinces owned by enemies during wartime. With El Dorado, players must select the "Hunt for the Seven Cities" button in the army display screen, upon which the conquistador will automatically head into terra incognita and reveal it.
  • While at war with a country that has terra incognita, you do not need a conquistador to enter the province, though it will take a much longer amount of time to enter the terra incognita.
  • A fleet led by an explorer can move into terra incognita sea provinces and thus discover them. Upon entering a sea province they also have a chance to discover neighboring coastal provinces (increased by explorer skill). Having a ship patrol back and forth will eventually reveal all coastal provinces (typically in 6–12 months), though it's important to beware naval attrition while doing so. However, the "Quest for the New World" idea, the second in the Exploration idea group, is required to hire explorers and conquistadors and explore terra incognita. In El Dorado, players must select the "exploration" button in the navy display, upon which the explorer will head to terra incognita and attempt to carry out the mission specified.
  • Undiscovered land provinces have a chance per month to be discovered by owners of adjacent provinces (typically taking 3–5 years). Russia and colonial nations have ideas that make this discovery instant.
  • After 25 years, discoveries will spread to other countries of the same tech group as that of the discoverer. A country that changes tech group (i.e., through westernizing) will immediately have all provinces known to that tech group revealed.
  • A fleet with at least 3 light ships, or at least 3 heavy ships (Though the tool-tip says 3 light ships and 3 heavy ships, only one type is needed) can be sent on an exploration mission. They will be sent to explore a sea province, or a coastal province. When exploring a sea province, they will discover all adjacent sea-provinces on their way. When exploring a coastal province, they will discover all coastal provinces adjacent to the sea province in which the target coastal province's port is located. Explorers can only be sent on missions to provinces within your colonial range. Explorers may trigger certain random events while on missions.
  • Armies led by a conquistador can be sent on a mission to hunt for the Seven Cities of Gold (This requires the El Dorado DLC). To do this, the army must be within a colonial region. They will then automatically move through terra incognita in the region, uncovering it, with a chance to trigger various random events.

Colonists.png Colonists[edit]

A colonist is required to start a colony.

Colonists.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+1

Expansion idea 1: Additional Colonists
Exploration idea 1: Colonial Ventures
Exploration idea 6: Free Colonies
American idea 3: Empire of Liberty
Canadian idea 3: Settling the Interior
Carib idea 5: Carib Seafarers
Malayan sultanate idea 7: Settle the Islands
Muscovite idea 5: Siberian Frontier
Norwegian idea 3: Pioneer Spirit
Spanish idea 3: Inter Caetera
Quantity-Expansion: The Colonial Settlement Act

(The Mayan, Inti, and Nahuatl religions grant an extra colonist with the appropriate reforms.)

Colonial range.png Range[edit]

The range where you can establish a colony from a core province of your own nation is called the colonial range. It expands depending on your diplomatic technology level, modifiers, other bonuses, events and mission. It also limits how far your explorers can go on exploration missions.

Colonial range.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+50%

Exploration idea 3: Overseas Exploration
+33%

Norwegian idea 2: The Call of our Forefathers
+25%

Portuguese idea 1: Legacy of the Navigator
+20%

Exploration-Plutocratic: The Colonial Companies Act
Naval-Exploration: Skilled Cartographers
+15%

Couronian idea 5: Couronian Colonization

AI nations also receive a +25% colonial range bonus, as they are not smart enough to colonize staging areas for future expansion.

Colonist time.png Travel time[edit]

The speed in which your colonists travel to claim and establish colonial territory. It is primarily modified by distance from your capital.

Envoy travel time.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
−25%

Brazilian traditions Influence idea 6: Postal Service
Kongo idea 4: Diplomacy With European Monarchs
West African idea 6: The Great River
Administrative-Diplomatic: The Recordkeeping Act
Diplomatic-Defensive: The Diplomatic Defense Act
Diplomatic-Quality: Professional Diplomatic Corps
Naval-Diplomatic: Overseas Embassies

Population[edit]

Once a colonist arrives in an unowned province the population starts at 10. Colony populations grow at a base rate depending on administrative technology, further modified by some ideas. In addition, as long as a colonist remains in a colony, they have a chance each month of bringing in 25 additional population, speeding growth greatly. Once a colony reaches a population of 300, it will become eligible for a random event that assigns it a trade good appropriate to the region it is in. A colony becomes a full city when its population reaches 1000, and is destroyed if its population reaches 0; this can be done by natives spawning, events and colonies being destroyed by other countries in a war. These means you will have to resend your colonist.

Global settler increase.png Growth[edit]

This is a steady addition each month. For example, if your current growth rate is 15 per year, you'll get one settler most months but two settlers every fourth month, for a total of 15 for the year. Diplomatic technology provides a base growth:

Diplomatic technology Growth (cumulative)
1 10
3 25
10 35
15 50
23 75
26 100
32 150
Global settler increase.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+25 yearly Native idea 7: Great Winter Hunts Spanish ambitions
+20 yearly Exploration idea 4: Land of Opportunity
Colonial idea 6: New Frontiers
Navarran idea 3: Intrepid Pioneers
Siberian idea 7: Hunting Expansion
Expansion-Exploration: Colonial Expansion
+15 yearly Mexican traditions Cham idea 4: Cham Migrations
Portuguese idea 6: Land Before Faith
+10 yearly Expansion idea 3: Faster Colonists Administrative-Exploration: The Colonial Administration Act
Exploration-Plutocratic: The Colonial Companies Act
Humanist-Exploration: Native Assimilation Act
Quantity-Expansion: The Colonial Settlement Act
Modifier Settlers per year
Colonial maintenance -125 to 0
No Adjacent Province Controlled -5
Arctic -10
Arid -10
Tropical -10
Treaty of Tordesillas Bonus +10
Violation of Treaty of Tordesillas -20

The development of a colony through growth will continue unabated even if the colony is under occupation. An aggressor attempting to seize colonies during a war should keep this in mind, less a colony be seized too late in a war, thereby precluding the possibility of converting its culture and religion with a colonist, as well as incurring an added coring cost.

Settler chance.png New settlers chance[edit]

If a colonist is in the colony there is some probability that 25 settlers reach the colony. So each 1% of probability is equal of 3.0 settlers per year (0.01 chance/month x 12 month/year x 25 settlers). The New Settlers chance is determined by the following:

Modifier Chance Mean settlers/year
Base + Base Value 10% 30
Per 100 population ("colony level") 4% 12
Per 100% Production Efficiency 20% 60
Per native aggressiveness -0.5% -1.5
Trading in Cotton 5% 15
Same religion 1% 3
Same culture 1% 3
Same culture group 1% 3

There is some policy that can increase the chance of new settlers

Settler chance.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+5.0%

Administrative-Exploration: The Colonial Administration Act
Expansion-Plutocratic: Taxation with Representation
Exploration-Innovative: Benign Neglect

Colonists will no longer be able to attract new settlers when a colony is under occupation, even if there is no indication of such on the interface. Aggressors attempting to steal a colony nearing completion should keep this in mind, less a colony is occupied too early in a war.

Overall growth[edit]

Colony Population by Initial Growth Rate. New Settlers are averaged; only Colony Level modifier changes as population increases. Notice the change in slope when the 10 settlers/year line passes 200 (and other hundreds).

This section considers how quickly colonies will grow into a city of 1000. The terms "colonists" and "settlers" will be used interchangeably here. Also, the steady "Growth" and random "New Settlers" contributions will be combined.

We can see that each colony has three important variables (population, base growth and chance of new settlers). For now on when we talk about of "base chance" we consider the chance independent from the population.

First at all we analyze an approximate model so we consider an equivalent growth of 3 settlers/year for each point of chance of new settlers. For example, if your colony has Growth of 50/year and New Settlers 10.0% chance, then your colony receives an equivalent growth of 80 settlers per year (50 + 3 x 10).

The Colony Level modifier for New Settlers is set to +4.0% for new colonies (which start with 10 settlers), and this Level increases by +4.0% for each hundred settlers, starting at 200. Stated another way: divide your number of settlers by 100, drop the fraction, and multiply by 4 to get your Colony Level modifier, with the exception that it's also 4% under 100.

In early games (without dropping colonial maintenance) we at least have 10 base growth (25 from tech -5 no adjacent controlled -10 arid) and 10% base chance (10% base -5% from aggressiveness +2% from production +3% from culture and religion), if we have an base equivalent growth of +40 settlers/year or an initial equivalent growth of +52 settlers/year

We can say that the extimate time to reach 1000 settlers is

T={\frac  {90}{BaseEqG+12}}+\sum _{{i=1}}^{9}{\frac  {100}{BaseEqG+12i}}

so in our example 30 Base Equivalent Growth we have

T={\frac  {90}{52}}+{\frac  {100}{52}}+{\frac  {100}{64}}+{\frac  {100}{76}}+{\frac  {100}{88}}+{\frac  {100}{100}}+{\frac  {100}{112}}+{\frac  {100}{124}}+{\frac  {100}{136}}+{\frac  {100}{148}}=11.77

then to complete a colony with 30 BaseEqG we need 11 years and 10 months.

Exixt same correct model to estimete the exact growth of a colony but since the difference between the real and the approximate model is only a couple of months we don't descibe they here. For example on our test scenario with 10 base growth and 10% base chance the real mean time to finish the colony is 12 years and 1 month.

Modifiers[edit]

Colonial Enthusiasm[edit]

The events Colonist Rush and Colonist Enthusiasm give the most powerful modifier; these two events only happen if the player has picked respectively Exploration and Expansion idea group.

  • Adds the modifier "Colonial Enthusiasm" for 5 years:
    • Settler chance.png +5% Colonist Chance
    • Global settler increase.png +25 Global Settler Increase

If a mission to colonize a province is available, but all colonists are currently busy, consider recalling one and sending it to the mission target, then abandoning the target colony as soon as the mission is completed. This grants the Colonial Enthusiasm modifier while avoiding the expense of maintaining too many colonies.

There exist also some mission in which the player discover some region of the New World, these missions are quite easy but remember that you can not have two identical modifier.

Treaty of Tordesillas[edit]

With El Dorado DLC the first Catholic nation to form a colonial nation (that is, to core 5 provinces in a colonial region) while the Papal State's opinion of them is at +50 or more, will be assigned that region. They and their colonial nations will receive a Global settler increase.png +10 increase to settler growth within the region. A single nations can have multiple colonial regions assigned to them by the Pope.

If another Catholic nation colonises a province in that region, they will receive severe penalty for "Violated the Treaty of Tordesillas":

  • Global settler increase.png -20 Local Settler Increase
  • Papal influence.png -10 Papal Influence yearly
  • Icon diplomacy relations.png -50 Papal opinion of us

Natives Encountering our Colonies[edit]

When a Christian state establishes a colony in the New World with at least 300 natives it triggers the Natives Encountering our Colonies event. All the options enable events that lead to temporary boosts to Global settler increase.png Global Settler Increase and Settler chance.png Colonist Chance.

The "Diseases" event with a choice between Disregard Natives and losing Gold Icon.png -40 ducats to Aid Natives:

  • Adds the modifier "Disregard Natives" for 2 years:
    • Settler chance.png -5% Colonist Chance
    • Global settler increase.png -5 Global Settler Increase


  • Lose Gold Icon.png -40 ducats
  • Adds the modifier "Aid Natives" for 2 years:
    • Settler chance.png +2% Colonist Chance
    • Global settler increase.png +2 Global Settler Increase

If the kill the savages option was chosen and:

  • Ruler's military skill is at least 2
  • Own a neighbor province

the event "Increase control" can be triggered which gives a choice between Expand Colonial Borders losing 24 -30 ducats or Restrict Colonial Expansion,

  • Adds the modifier "Restrict Colonial Expansion" for 2 years:
    • Global settler increase.png -10 Global Settler Increase


  • Lose 24 -30 ducats
  • Adds the modifier "Expand Colonial Borders" for 2 years:
    • Settler chance.png +5% Colonist Chance
    • Global settler increase.png +1 Global Settler Increase

National Modifier[edit]

Casa de Contratacion

When Castile Castile or Spain Spain gets the second colonist they receive (MTTH = 120 months) an event to increase the growth of Spanish colony.

  • Adds the modifier "Casa de Contratacion" until the end of the campaign:
    • Settler chance.png +1% Colonist Chance
    • Global settler increase.png +5 Global Settler Increase
Colonial Policy

When Portugal Portugal has a colonial subject it receives (MTTH = 120 months) Colonial Policy event in which it can have better colonial growth or better tariffs.

  • Adds the modifier "Colonial Policy" for the rest of the campaign:
    • Global settler increase.png +10 Global Settler Increase
Governor Martim Afonso de Sousa in Brazil

If Portugal Portugal or a Portuguese subject has a core on the Brazil region it receives (MTTH = 100 months) Governor de Sousa event to increase the growth of Portuguese colony.

  • Adds the modifier "Governor de Sousa" for the rest of the campaign:
    • Global settler increase.png +30 Global Settler Increase

Maintenance[edit]

Colonial maintenance is the money that you spend in maintaining your colonies. At 100% maintenance, the cost of the i-th active colony per year is given by

{\text{cost per year}}=\left(24+{\frac  {{\text{base tax + base production + base manpower}}}{4}}\right)\cdot \left(1+\max \left(i-{\text{number of colonists}},0\right)^{2}\right)

As shown above, a country can support a number of colonies equal to its number of colonists at the base maintenance cost. After this the marginal maintenance cost starts rising swiftly (the tooltip claims exponential growth but the formula is actually quadratic, not exponential):

Colony over cap: Cost multiplier for that colony:
1st 2x
2nd 5x
3rd 10x
4th 17x

Note that unlike force limit, this is applied to each colony individually in the order that they were founded, so the more recent colonies will be saddled with the higher cost multipliers.

Natives[edit]

Colonizable provinces are usually occupied by natives, who may attack a colony there. If an army is not stationed there, they have a chance to reduce the colony's population of settlers. Otherwise they will attack the army, sparing the settlers. Natives are also very likely to attack land units passing through their province regardless of whether the province is colonized.

Population[edit]

Native population in 1444.

The size of the native population determines how many native regiments attack at a time. The native population can be reduced using the Attack Natives military action. However, when the colony becomes a full city it will gain a discount to further development cost, so it is usually beneficial to leave the native population alone if the colony can be protected by an army.

Native aggressiveness Aggressiveness[edit]

Native aggressiveness in 1444.

Aggressiveness ranges from 0 to 10. It determines how likely the natives are to attack. It is not known what exactly each point of aggressiveness represents but it can be assumed that each point of aggressiveness represents an extra 10% chance of a native uprising happening.

Aggressiveness  % chance of uprising
0 0%
1 10%
2 20%
3 30%
4 40%
5 50%
6 60%
7 70%
8 80%
9 90%
10 100%

Ferocity icon.png Ferocity[edit]

Ferocity ranges from 0 to 10. Natives get a +5% damage bonus per point of Ferocity.

Units[edit]

Natives use low-tech units:

Area Name Off. Morale of armies.png Def. Morale of armies.png Off. Icon fire.png Def. Icon fire.png Off. Icon shock.png Def. Icon shock.png Total pips
Americas Native American Archer 1 pip 1 0 pips 0 0 pips 0 0 pips 0 1 pip 1 0 pips 0 2
Africa African Spearman 1 pip 1 1 pip 1 0 pips 0 0 pips 0 1 pip 1 0 pips 0 3
Asia East Asian Spearman 1 pip 1 0 pips 0 0 pips 0 0 pips 0 1 pip 1 0 pips 0 2
Arctic Archer Cavalry 1 pip 1 0 pips 0 0 pips 0 0 pips 0 1 pip 1 1 pip 1 3

Colonial provinces[edit]

Province attributes[edit]

  • A province can only be colonized if the province is coastal and within the colonizers colonial range, or adjacent to a province already colonized by the nation.
  • A colonial province is assigned the primary culture and religion of its owner when a colonist arrives there.
  • A colonial province is assigned a trade good sometime after it reaches 300 population.
  • Since patch 1.4 colonial provinces are autocored once they became a city. Since Patch 1.9 colonies on the same continent as the colonizer, or to that are connected to their capital by their provinces through land or straits, don't receive free cores, but instead a highly reduced coring cost. Overseas colonies have a similar coring cost.
  • Since Patch 1.10 colonies do not give over-extension, even if they are not cored.

Distant overseas[edit]

Continents.

Colonies are considered distant overseas unless any of the following is true:

  • The province is on the same continent as the capital.
  • The province has a direct land connection to the capital; crossable straits are acceptable.
  • The province is at a maximum, 150 away from the capital.

Example 1: If the Ottomans conquered only Alexandria from the Mamluks, it would be distant overseas. However, if the Ottomans then conquered a strip of land along the Mediterranean that connected Alexandria to Istanbul – via the crossing over the Sea of Marmara – Alexandria would no longer be distant overseas.

Example 2: Castile and Spain can cross the Mediterranean and conquer North African provinces as far as Casablanca, Fez, Tlemcen, and Al-Djazair without receiving the distant overseas penalty because these provinces are sufficiently close to its capital in Toledo.

The distant overseas modifier has the following effects:

  • A minimum Autonomy.png autonomy of 75%
  • There is no penalty to production income from gold.

Colonial nation[edit]

Main article: Colonial nation

Colonial nations, introduced in patch 1.4, are a form of subject state available to any colonial power, that can form in America and Australia . They are not playable without the Conquest of Paradise DLC.

If you core 5 provinces all from the same colonial nation group (australia, siberia, north america, south america, etc), they will automatically form a new colonial nation, which you can then name and, in 1.12, rename at will. Non-core provinces in the same region will not join the colonial nation unless cored.

Seven Cities of Gold and the Fountain of Youth[edit]

Main article: El Dorado

El Dorado expansion introduces 8 special places that you can discover by sending conquistadors to hunt for the Seven Cities of Gold in the new world.

Locality Failure Partially discovered Completely discovered
El Dorado -10 Prestige.png +5 Tax income.png for 50 years +10 Tax income.png / -1 National unrest.png
Cibola -10 Prestige.png +5 Tax income.png for 50 years +10 Tax income.png / +0.5 Prestige.png yearly
City of the Caesars -10 Prestige.png +5 Tax income.png for 50 years +10 Tax income.png / +0.5 Legitimacy.png or +0.3 Republican tradition.png yearly
Sierra de la Plata -10 Prestige.png +5 Tax income.png for 50 years +10 Tax income.png / +20% Better relations over time.png
Norumbega -10Prestige.png +5% Trade efficiency.png for 50 years +10% Trade power.png / +5% Ship durability.png
Kingdom of Saguenay -10 Prestige.png +5% Trade efficiency.png for 50 years +10% Trade power.png / +10% Trade efficiency.png
Quivira -10 Prestige.png +5 Tax income.png for 50 years +10 Tax income.png / +0.5 Prestige.png yearly
Fountain of Youth -10 Prestige.png +0.5 Prestige.pngfor 50 years +10% Trade power.png / +0.5 Prestige.png yearly

Strategies[edit]

Island hopping[edit]

Early in the game when colonial range is short, island hopping is necessary to cross oceans, especially if not a European nation. Base colonial range is 160 at Diplomatic Technology level 3 and 275 at Diplomatic Technology level 7. Overseas Exploration (Exploration Ideas) gives +50%. Thus, important range numbers are 160, 240, 275, and 412.

Atlantic Ocean[edit]

West Africa and the Central Atlantic islands are the fastest route across the Atlantic. Without this it will almost certainly take until Diplomatic Technology level 7 to reach the New World.

Path Distances Notes
Iceland Reykjavik (Iceland) to Vestbygden (Greenland): 324
Vestbygden (Greenland) to Naskapi (Canada): 99
Iceland is controlled by Norway in 1444.
Central Atlantic Azores to Bermuda: 325
Azores to Trinidad: 301
Arguin to Rio Grande: 204
Cape Verde to Alagoas: 164
Cape Verde is typically colonized by Portugal early.
South Atlantic St. Helena to South Georgia: 283
St. Helena to Paraiba: 270
South Georgia to Falklands: 210
South Georgia to Rio Grande Do Sul: 196

Pacific Ocean[edit]

Alaska in the far north from Siberia is the fastest route across the Pacific. Failing this, it will require Diplomatic Technology level 7 to cross the Pacific. The other route is directly across the Pacific, hopping from island to island.

Path Distances Notes
Alaska Kagyrgyn to Aleut: 150
Aleut to Kenai: 237
Kagyrgyn is controlled by Chukchi in 1444.
Be careful that counter-intuitively Aleut-Kodiac is 246.
Central Pacific Ryukyu to Guam: 243
Hawaii to Pomo: 386
Once on Guam distances on the way to Hawaii are short.
South Pacific Fiji to Society Islands: 186
Society Islands to Tahiti: 160
Tahiti to Rapanui: 295
Rapanui to Galápagos Islands: 323
Rapanui to Coquimbo: 366

Indian Ocean[edit]

The Indian Ocean can be crossed to Africa with level 3 Diplomatic Technology and Overseas Exploration (Exploration Ideas).

Path Distances Notes
West East Africa to Mahe: Less than 160
Antananarivo (Madagascar) to Mauritius: 94
Mauritius to Diego Garcia: 185
Mahe to Diego Garcia: 220
Central Maldives to Diego Garcia: 85
East Christmas Island to Cocos Island: 86
Cocos Island to Diego Garcia: 187

Reaching the East Indies[edit]

Reaching India, the East Indies and the rest of Asia is a historical achievement for European colonizers. European nations with Exploration idea group unlocked will receive the missions "Get into India" and "Establish a foothold in China/Spice Islands" in the mid- to late-game.

Reaching this area will give the player access to valuable trade goods such as spices and tea. Reaching these territories may be challenging especially in early game but may be worth while because of access to goods. The most effective way is to colonize territories in Africa "hopping" all the way around the Cape of Good Hope (which is valuable for trade as well). Then the player must cross the Indian Ocean which can be done by taking land in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula or by island hopping by using Diego Garcia, the Maldives and other islands in the region. From there the player may chose to stay and conquer India or move on to the Spice Islands and Asia.

Colonizing America[edit]

Colonizing America can be beneficial to most any power with the ability to colonize. The American continent is rich in resources and trade goods. For Europeans, the first step may be to colonize islands in the Caribbean, Brazil, Canada, or Greenland, depending on the player's starting location. For colonizers from Asia, the Alaska and California regions are closest, with Mexico a good choice if the Europeans haven't taken it yet. Then, it is best to conquer small native states before any other colonial power has the opportunity. The player should generally be careful when conquering the Mesoamerican or Incan nations because the large amount of gold provinces acquired may result in crippling inflation. Lastly, the player should try and unite colonial territory to ensure maximum stability and protection against rebels and foreign aggression.

Economy
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