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Primary culture
Circassian (Caucasian)

Capital province
Circassia (463)

Tribal FederationGovernment tribal.png

State religion

Technology group
EasternEastern technology group
Circassian ideas
Traditions.png Traditions:
−10% Stability cost modifier
+50% Hostile core-creation cost on us

Cavalry cost.png Horsemen of the Steppe

−10% Cavalry cost
+5% Cavalry combat ability

Provincial trade power modifier.png Merchants Of Genoa

+15% Provincial trade power modifier

Trade efficiency.png Circassian Grain Trade

+10% Trade efficiency

Missionaries.png Franciscan Missionaries

+1 Missionary

Prestige decay.png Adyghe Beauty

−1% Prestige decay

Diplomat.png Steppe Diplomats

+1 Diplomat

Tolerance heretic.png Religious Flexibility

+1 Tolerance of heretics
+1 Tolerance of heathens

Idea bonus.png Ambition:

+10% Morale of armies

Circassia is a country located in the Caucasus region, and unlike most Orthodox countries it is a Tribal Federation instead of a regular monarchy. It starts out surrounded by the Flag of Golden Horde Golden Horde, Flag of Crimea Crimea and Flag of Georgia Georgia. It is the primary tag of the Circassian culture.


Starting position[edit]

Circassia begins the game in a precarious position. It is bordered to the south and east by hostile Flag of Georgia Georgia and Caucasian kingdoms. To the north, opportunistic hordes wait to strike at any sign of weakness. To the west, Genoa has seized the Circassian core of Mantrega and eyes the possibility of more territory. With deft alliances and opportunistic conflicts, Circassia can maintain its independence and become a world power.

With a force limit of 9 and extremely low development, Circassia is one of the weakest nations in the Caucasus region. In light of this fact, Circassia should immediately begin improving relations with Flag of Muscovy Muscovy. Flag of Muscovy Muscovy will provide a welcome deterrent to opportunistic neighbours and supply much needed military power for future campaigns. Flag of Trebizond Trebizond may offer an alliance, but it is weak and will only be a hindrance on Circassia's rise to power.


Other than Flag of Muscovy Muscovy, Flag of Byzantium Byzantium, Flag of Trebizond Trebizond and Flag of Theodoro Theodoro, Circassia's neighbours will be hostile. Flag of Georgia Georgia generally will rival the player immediately and it is best to reciprocate the favour as Flag of Georgia Georgia provides an early avenue for expansion. After rivalling Flag of Georgia Georgia, the rest of Circassia's slots should be filled based on individual circumstances. The Muslim Flag of Gazikumukh Gazikumukh and Flag of Shirvan Shirvan to the east should be targeted initially since they are Circassia's weakest neighbours and are the least risky way of expansion. Due to Flag of Genoa Genoa's membership in the Holy Roman Empire, it will also be a long-term rival until an adequate opportunity arises. Flag of Crimea Crimea is a dangerous pick until the player has cemented the relationship with Muscovy.

After the customary initial steps of setting rivals and embargoes, use Circassia's second diplomat to fabricate claims on Flag of Georgia Georgia. Circassia can attack Flag of Gazikumukh Gazikumukh without CB first and vassalize them, since their army would be very useful in the attack against Flag of Georgia Georgia. The opportune moment to attack Flag of Georgia Georgia should arrive after Flag of Georgia Georgia's army is annihilated when it attempts to rescue Flag of Trebizond Trebizond from annexation by Flag of Qara Qoyunlu Qara Qoyunlu. Siege Flag of Georgia Georgia and take Circassia's claims in the following peace deal. These provinces are expensive to core due to the increased core-creation cost most Caucasus countries have in their idea groups, so it might be better to create Flag of Imereti Imereti as a vassal out of the provinces Circassia conquered.

Early years[edit]

Following the first war with Flag of Georgia Georgia, Circassia's diplomat should have improved relations with Flag of Muscovy Muscovy to max value. Send a gift of 50 ducats and Circassia should be able to ally Flag of Muscovy Muscovy post haste. With Circassia's alliance with Flag of Muscovy Muscovy secured, continue to fabricate claims on surrounding nations with the intention of attacking the Flag of Golden Horde Golden Horde soon. The Flag of Golden Horde Golden Horde will be weak and exhausted from frequent wars with surrounding hordes like Flag of Kazan Kazan and Flag of Crimea Crimea. It is best to attack with Flag of Muscovy Muscovy on Circassia's side and in tandem with a second conflict. If Circassia has Flag of Gazikumukh Gazikumukh as a vassal, Circassia can give Terek to them to prevent the relatively high core cost of the province.

By now, Circassia should hold most of the Caucasus provinces. Most smaller neighbours have been annexed and the Circassian player will have to be patient unless it wishes to be risky. During this stage there will be a lot of waiting for opportune moments to arrive. It would be best to improve Circassia's economic situation while waiting. The low development and Circassian ideas means that it would be best for Circassia to gain its money through trade. Fill Circassia's forcelimit with light ships to patrol the Crimea trade node and place merchants to collect in inland trade nodes. Because of the reliance of trade, the first idea group should be Trade ideas.

Expansion and the future[edit]

Flag of Genoa Genoa has likely managed to hold onto Mantrega. Circassia should attack them when they are at war with the Emperor and don't have that many allies with a large navy. When taking Mantrega, Circassia should also try to take Caffa and Azov since they have trade modifiers. It might be necessary to build a fleet to blockade the provinces and transport units.

After Flag of Genoa Genoa is banished from the Black Sea, Circassia's only viable avenue of expansion is through horde lands. They initially outnumber Circassia militarily, but their numbers will not matter when Circassia is at military technology level 12. At this point Circassia can likely attack the hordes north and south of Circassia whenever it suits. Be careful with Flag of Crimea Crimea though, since they are almost always allied to the Flag of Ottomans Ottomans. Circassia should probably attack Flag of Crimea Crimea when the Flag of Ottomans Ottomans are being defeated in a war.

Congratulations, by this point the player has brought Circassia from a pathetically weak country to a regional superpower. The Flag of Ottomans Ottomans are a likely middle to late-game opponent, but by allying a power who hates them Circassia can beat them back.

Country guides

Central African technology group Central African.png Mutapa.png Mutapa
East African technology group East African.png Kilwa.png Kilwa
Muslim technology group Muslim.png The Mamluks.png MamluksTunis.png Tunis
West African technology group West African.png Mali.png Mali Mossi.png Mossi

Eastern technology group Eastern.png Jerusalem.png Jerusalem
Muslim technology group Muslim.png Arabia.png Arabia Hejaz.png Hejaz Khiva.png Khiva Mughals.png Mughals Oman.png Oman Persia.png Persia Shammar.png Shammar
Indian technology group Indian.png Assam.png Assam Bahmanis.png Bahmanis Bengal.png Bengal Ceylon.png Ceylon Gujarat.png Gujarat Jaunpur.png Jaunpur Orissa.png Orissa Vijayanagar.png Vijayanagar
Chinese technology group Chinese.png Bali.png Bali Brunei.png Brunei Dai Viet.png Dai Viet Japan.png Japan Khmer.png Khmer Korea.png Korea Lan Xang.png Lan Xang Majapahit.png Majapahit Malaya.png Malaya Pagarruyung.png Pagarruyung Pasai.png Pasai Qing.png Qing Sulu.png Sulu Sunda.png Sunda
Nomadic technology group Nomadic.png Jianzhou.png Jianzhou Manchu.png Manchu Qara Qoyunlu.png Qara Qoyunlu Timurids.png Timurids Uzbek.png Uzbek

Western technology group Western.png United States.png United States
Mesoamerican technology group Mesoamerican.png Maya.png Maya
North American technology group North American.png Cherokee.png Cherokee Creek.png Creek Huron.png Huron Iroquois.png Iroquois Pueblo.png Pueblo

Andean technology group Andean.png Cusco.png Cusco Muisca.png Muisca
South American technology group South American.png Mapuche.png Mapuche