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Province view
For a list of all provinces, see List of provinces.

In Europa Universalis IV, the world is divided into continents, regions, countries, and provinces. Provinces are the smallest of these divisions. They contribute to a nation's tax, manpower, unrest, overextension, and trade.

Each province comprises a small geographic region, with a town or city at its center. Cities currently have no functionality outside of aesthetics, but like provinces, can be renamed as of patch 1.4. Both province and city names can be changed by left clicking on them in the province tab. With the Wealth of Nations expansion, province names can also be dynamic and scripted to be unique for either the province owner, the province culture or the province culture group (in that priority). With the Common Sense expansion, a province can now be improved with developments.

There are 2632 provinces in total.

Terms & Mechanics[edit]

Provinces are the heart of any nation in Europa Universalis IV. They provide income, manpower, and trade goods.


Main article: Development

Introduced in patch 1.12, development is the measure of a province wealth and productivity. The level of development of a province contributes to local trade power, land and naval force limits, supply limit modifier and the total number of buildings that can be built in a province. Development is further divided into base tax, production and manpower. Each can be improved further with the appropriate monarch points. The Common Sense DLC is needed in order to improve developments in a province.


Main article: Tax

Each province has a base tax, roughly corresponding to the population and wealth of the area. The amount shown is the tax earned each month from that province, after all the modifiers have been accounted for. Prior to patch 1.12, the figure given ingame is the tax obtained annually.


Main articles: Production, Trade goods

Each province produces a specific type of resource or trade good. See Trade for a complete list of trade goods. The figure given ingame is the monthly production income. Production efficiency further increases the income received.


Main article: Manpower

Every province contributes a certain amount of manpower to the manpower pool of a nation. This is affected by the province manpower development level, and are modified by ideas, government type and buildings.


Main article: Land warfare

Provinces can be defended by forts. Provinces that lack a fort will fall easily to the enemy. Forts exert a Zone of Control around itself and surrounding provinces, and must be taken before an enemy army may pass through. In times of peace, a fort may be mothballed in order to save maintenance, at the cost of it falling into disrepair and possibly not being able to defend the province. Nations may start off with forts in strategic locations. Capital provinces without a fort starts with a special level 1 fort that does not exert Zone of Control around itself, and has a smaller garrison.


Main article: Trade

Related closely to production is trade. Each province produces a certain amount of trade power and contributes trade value to the trade node it is attached to.


Main article: Local autonomy

Autonomy represents the degree of control the government of the nation exerts over a province. The lower it is, the more control the government has. Autonomy determines how productive a province is to a nation.A province with 100 local autonomy won't pay tax and won't give manpower and trade power.


Main article: Rebellion

In troubled times, various parties may decide to rebel against the national government. This is represented in-game by unrest. The type of rebels that may appear are shown in the province screen, and also in the stability and expansion government tab. Unrest can also be lowered by increasing the local autonomy, but will decrease the income and manpower that province produces.


Provinces that have been besieged or occupied or where their owner has scorched the earth gain Devastation icon.png devastation, a value ranging from zero to 100%. At 100% devastation, a province gets the following penalties:

Local goods produced modifier −100% Local goods produced modifier
Supply limit modifier −50% Supply limit modifier
Local institution spread.png −100% Institution spread
Local development cost +10% Local development cost
Local manpower modifier.png −100% Manpower modifier
Local sailors modifier.png −100% Sailors modifier
Hostile movement speed −25% Local hostile movement speed
Movement speed.png −25% Local friendly movement speed

Devastation changes according to the following factors:

+0.1 Under siege (even friendly)
+0.2 Occupied
−0.08 Under its owner's control
−0.83 In the zone of control of a friendly active fort (not if occupied)
−0.25 Edict of Absolutism (requires Mandate of Heaven.png Mandate of Heaven)

Cores and claims[edit]

Main articles: Core, Claim

Cores represent the parts of the nation that it considers rightfully theirs. Cores belonging to nations that do not exist are greyed out. A province can have an unlimited amount of cores. A nation may claim another province through espionage or boundary disputes.

Culture and religion[edit]

Main articles: Culture, Religion

Each province has a primary culture and religion. Provinces that have foreign cultures or do not share the state religion tend to be more rebellious.


Main article: Buildings

Nations may further develop their provinces by building improvements and infrastructure. The number of buildings that can be built in a province are limited by its development level.


Main article: Capital

Every nation in Europa Universalis IV has a capital province. The capital is considered the political center of the nation and should be defended at all costs. Capitals can be moved at the cost of 200 administrative points.

Main trading port[edit]

Every nation in Europa Universalis IV has a main trading port province which is by default located in the same province as the capital. Trading ports can be moved at the cost of 200 Diplomatic power.png diplomatic power in order to optimize trade income. With patch 1.8, trade is automatically collected in a nation's main trading port without the need to station a merchant there.


Straits are connections between two provinces which do not share a land border but instead can be accessed over a water body. A list of straits in the base map is below.

  • Lund − Sjaelland
  • Sjaelland − Fyn
  • Fyn − Østjylland
  • Fyn − Kolding
  • Fyn − Lolland
  • Sjaelland − Lolland
  • Calabria − Messina
  • Constantinople − Kocaeli
  • Menominee − Michigan
  • Stockholm − Åland
  • Åland − Åbo
  • Corfu − Epirus
  • Epirus − Achaea
  • Athens − Naxos
  • Edirne − Biga
  • Sutherland − Western Isles
  • Sutherland − Orkney
  • Holland − Friesland
  • Suo − Chikuzen
  • Bungo − Iyo
  • Iyo − Aki
  • Leichow − Kingchow
  • Reval − Ösel
  • Ösel − Goldingen
  • Johor − Siak
  • Lingga − Jambi
  • Nootka − Salish
  • Nootka − Squamish
  • Nootka − Kwakiutl
  • Eskikewakik − Unamakik
  • Sipeknekatik − Epekwitk
  • Chisedec − Taqamkuk
  • Deren − Sakhalin
  • Tajura − Mokha
  • Venezia − Treviso
  • Stade − Dithmarschen
  • Awa − Settsu
  • Mutsu − Oshima
  • The Kurils–Tokachi
  • Bagamoyo − Zanzibar
  • Corsica − Sassari
  • Al-Qatif − Bahrain
  • Qatar − Bahrain
  • Lanao − Panay
  • Visayas − Bikol
  • Halmahera − Ternate
  • Halmahera − Tidore
  • Taranaki − Waitaha
  • Chios − Sugla
  • Chios − Biga
  • Caffa − Matrega
  • Haida − Tlingit
  • Odawa − Okouara
  • Odawa − Soto
  • Mingan − Anticosti
  • Ayrshire − Ulster
  • Madurai − Vanni
  • Orinoco Delta − Trinidad
  • St. Vincent − St. Lucia
  • St. Lucia − Martinique
  • Martinique − Dominica
  • Guadalupe − Antigua
  • Antigua − St. Kitts
  • Surabaya − Madura
  • Bali − Lombok
  • Lombok − Sumbawa
  • Sumbawa − Flores
  • Flores − East Timor
  • Buton − Kendari
  • Visayas − Panay
  • Visayas − Butuan
  • Panay − Manila
  • Palawan − Manila
  • Ambom − Ceram
  • Bangka − Palembang
  • Bintan − Johor
  • Para − Marajó
  • Belem − Marajó
  • Menominee − Odawa
  • Djerba − Tataouine
  • Banten − Tulungbewang
  • Mogostan − Hormuz
  • Qawasim − Hormuz
  • Athens − Euboea
  • Euboea − Naxos
  • Savolax − Kainuu
  • Ceuta − Gibraltar

Climates and winters[edit]

Each province has a climate and may experience winters of varying severity. There are map modes for climates and winters.

Climate map.
Legend: temperate tropical arid arctic


Arctic icon
The arctic climate is harsh, where there is not much large vegetation.

Arctic provinces give:[1]

Local colonial growth.png %−10 Local settler increase
Supply limit modifier −40% Supply limit modifier
Attrition for enemies.png 0%+1 Attrition for enemies
0%−1 Possible number of buildings
Local development cost +50% Local development cost


Arid icon
The arid climate has a severe lack of rainfall, making it very hard to keep a large army supplied.

Arid provinces give:[2]

Local colonial growth.png %−10 Local settler increase
Supply limit modifier −20% Supply limit modifier
Attrition for enemies.png 0%+1 Attrition for enemies
Local development cost +15% Local development cost


Tropical icon
The tropical climate makes it very hard for new cities to grow, as diseases and heat are large obstacles.

Tropical provinces give:[3]

Local colonial growth.png %−10 Local settler increase
Supply limit modifier −30% Supply limit modifier
Attrition for enemies.png 0%+2 Attrition for enemies
Local development cost +15% Local development cost
Winter map.
Legend: no winter mild winter normal winter severe winter

Mild winter

Mild winter icon
There is a small amount of snow on the ground, and the temperature is just below freezing.

Provinces with a mild winter have:[4]

Attrition for enemies.png +1 Attrition for enemies
Supply limit modifier −10% Supply limit modifier

Normal winter

Normal winter icon
The ground is covered by snow, and the temperature is solidly below freezing.

Provinces with a normal winter have:[5]

Attrition for enemies.png +2 Attrition for enemies
Supply limit modifier −20% Supply limit modifier

Severe winter

Severe winter icon
The snow has piled up quite severely, and the temperatures are far below freezing.

Provinces with a severe winter have:[6]

Attrition for enemies.png +3 Attrition for enemies
Supply limit modifier −30% Supply limit modifier


Coastal Center of Trade[edit]

Coastal center of trade icon
The importance of this province as a Center of Trade will help control trade in the region.

Coastal centers of trade give Local trade power.png+10 local trade power, Naval forcelimit.png+2 naval force limit, Local development cost−5% local development cost, Sailors.png+25% local sailors modifier and Local institution spread.png+10% institution spread.[7]

  • Bergenshus
  • Danzig
  • Hamburg
  • Lübeck
  • Holland
  • Genoa
  • Venezia
  • Ragusa
  • Constantinople
  • València
  • Sevilla
  • Lisboa
  • London
  • Lothian
  • Caffa
  • Hüdavendigar
  • Tangiers
  • Tlemcen
  • Tunis
  • Alexandria
  • Aden
  • Muscat
  • Surat
  • Malabar
  • Tondainadu
  • Coromandel
  • Chittagong
  • Kotte
  • Malacca
  • Ayutthaya
  • Kalapa
  • Brunei
  • Makassar
  • Canton
  • Hangzhou
  • Lima
  • Zanzibar
  • Mombasa
  • Mogadishu
  • Zeila
  • Antwerpen
  • Beijing
  • Chikuzen
  • Kholmogory
  • Goa
  • Ahmadabad
  • Cuetlaxtlan
  • Pasai
  • Gyeongju
  • Hormuz

Inland Center of Trade[edit]

Inland center of trade icon
The importance of this province as a Center of Trade will help control trade in the region.

Inland centers of trade gain Local trade power.png+10 local trade power, Local development cost−5% local development cost and Local institution spread.png+10% institution spread.[7]

  • Köln
  • Firenze
  • Wien
  • Champagne
  • Lyonnais
  • Krakow
  • Prague
  • Kiev
  • Moskva
  • Nizhny Novgorod
  • Novgorod
  • Tafilalt
  • Aleppo
  • Baghdad
  • Tabriz
  • Mazandaran
  • Samarkand
  • Lahore
  • Delhi
  • Central Doab
  • Chengdu
  • Xi'an
  • Yumen
  • Girin
  • Asuncion
  • Chuquiabo
  • Pueblo
  • Tamaroa
  • Potawatomi
  • Hochelega
  • Winnipeg
  • Kazan
  • Timbuktu
  • Katsina
  • Borno
  • Mpemba
  • Tete
  • Harer
  • Gonder
  • Frankfurt
  • Honniasont
  • Manaus
  • Kalonga
  • Buganda
  • Luba


Estuary icon
Controlling the important river estuary strengthens our hold of the trade in the region.

River estuaries give Local trade power.png+10 local trade power.[7]

  • Neva
  • Riga
  • Memel
  • Danzig
  • Hamburg
  • Holland
  • Ferrara
  • Caux
  • Nantes
  • Gascogne
  • Provence
  • Sevilla
  • Lisboa
  • Porto
  • London
  • Yedisan
  • Azov
  • Rosetta
  • Basra
  • Shirvan
  • Astrakhan
  • Thatta
  • Velanadu
  • Bengal Delta (Gives only Local trade power.png+5)
  • Dhaka (Gives only Local trade power.png+5)
  • Pegu (Gives only Local trade power.png+5)
  • Canton
  • Rio de la Plata
  • Guayaquil
  • Chinook
  • Chitimacha
  • Santee
  • Chesapeake
  • Lenape
  • Manhattan
  • Stadacona
  • Muskegon
  • Cayor
  • Benin
  • Quelimane
  • Bessarabia
  • Pathein (Gives only Local trade power.png+5)
  • Suzhou
  • Stettin
  • Bremen
  • East Frisia
  • Konaseema
  • Huai'an
  • Canik
  • Hai Phong
  • Prek Russey
  • Mangazea
  • Coahuilteco
  • Tarragona

Important Natural Harbor[edit]

Important natural harbor icon
This province is naturally suited to become a local Center of Trade and controlling it will help control trade in the region.

Important natural harbors give Local trade power.png+10 local trade power, Naval forcelimit.png+1 naval force limit, Local development cost−5% local development cost, and Sailors.png+50% local sailors modifier.[7]

  • Havana
  • Barahonas
  • Manilla
  • Bahia
  • Rio de Janeiro
  • Picunmapu
  • Cartagena
  • Panama
  • Tlapanec
  • Massachusetts
  • Eora
  • Gold Coast
  • Cape
  • Miwok

Important natural harbors may become coastal centers of trade through an event if Feudalism.png Feudalism has spread to them, a Latin marketplace.png Markeplace has been built, or have at least Development.png 15 development.

The Spice Islands[edit]

The Spice Islands give Local goods produced +3 local goods produced.

  • Ternate
  • Tidore

Province trade power value.pngSound Toll[edit]

In addition, there are two important sounds in the world, where two provinces have the privilege of profiting from the sound toll: Sjælland and Constantinople.[7]

  • Sjælland gets Local trade power.png+20 local trade power.
  • Constantinople gets Local trade power.png+10 local trade power.

Religious center[edit]

Religious center icon
The importance of this province as a Religious Center will make it very difficult to convert.

Religious centers have Local missionary strength.png −5% local missionary strength.[7]

  • Roma
  • Mecca
  • Hillah
  • Lhasa
  • Doaba – after 1499
  • Varanasi
  • Kandy

After the the Protestant Reformation, new religious centers will appear for the Protestant and Reformed faith, depending on where it started. Up to three religious centers will appear for each.

Miscellaneous modifiers[edit]

  • Dalaskogen has the Stora Kopparberget, giving it Local goods produced +5 local goods produced.
  • Potosi has the Cerro Rico, giving it Local goods produced +3 local goods produced.
  • Lima has the Oracle of Pachacamac, giving it Tolerance own.png +0.5 tolerance of the true faith.
  • Cholula has the Cholula Temples, giving it Prestige.png +0.5 yearly prestige, Legitimacy.png +0.5 yearly legitimacy, and Devotion.png +0.5 yearly devotion.
  • Kyoto has Heian-kyo, giving it Prestige.png +0.5 yearly prestige and Possible advisors.png +1 possible advisors.
  • Lund has the Skåne Market, giving it Local goods produced +1.5 local goods produced.
  • Owari has Jingu, giving it Tolerance own.png +1 tolerance of the true faith.

Number of states.png States and Territories[edit]

An example of states and territories as held by Castile on the Iberian peninsula.
Main article: Territories and states

States and Territories are a new mechanic introduced in patch 1.16 intended to replace the old Overseas mechanic. The system introduces a 2-part coring process. A newly conquered province is considered as part of a territory (unless it already belongs to one of the nation's existing states). Turning a territory into a state requires firstly coring all the uncored owned provinces in that territory and secondly payment of state maintenance. Afterwards, it is possible to instantaneously complete the coring process by paying the remaining coring costs.

Provinces which are not part of a nation's state and cored have Local autonomy.png 75% Local autonomy floor and therefore regarded the same way as overseas provinces used to beforehand.


Each province has a terrain type associated with it. These terrain types can have both positive and negative effects. Combat is affected majorily by terrain type and can even make the difference between glorious victory or shameful defeat. Terrain types and their corresponding positive/negative effects can be seen here:

Terrain Supply limit.png
Supply limit
Local defensiveness.png
Local defensiveness
Movement speed.png
Movement cost

Attacker penalty
Glacial terrain Glacial +2 +25% −1
Farmlands terrain Farmlands +10 +10%
Forest terrain Forest +4 +25% −1
Hills terrain Hills +5 +10% +40% −1
Woods terrain Woods +6 +10% −1
Mountain terrain Mountain +4 +25% +50% −2
Grasslands terrain Grasslands +8
Jungle terrain Jungle +5 +50% −1
Marsh terrain Marsh +5 +30% −1
Desert terrain Desert +4 +5%
Coastal Desert terrain Coastal Desert +4
Coastline terrain Coastline +6
Drylands terrain Drylands +7
Highlands terrain Highlands +6 +10% +40% −1
Savannah terrain Savannah +6
Steppe terrain Steppes +6

The farmlands terrain also gets +1 possible number of buildings


  1. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt (Static modifiers#Arctic).
  2. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt (Static modifiers#Arid).
  3. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt (Static modifiers#Tropical).
  4. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt (Static modifiers#Mild Winter).
  5. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt (Static modifiers#Normal Winter).
  6. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt (Static modifiers#Severe Winter).
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/event_modifiers/00_event_modifiers.txt
Province mechanics
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