For countries in the Levantine culture group except those with Turkish as primary culture.
- +15% National manpower modifier
- −15% Land attrition
- +15% Trade steering
- −10% Cavalry cost
- +25% Cavalry flanking ability
- −1 National unrest
- +1% Missionary strength
- +10% Global trade power
- +10% Production efficiency
- +1 Yearly prestige
- +1 Land leader shock
Arabia does not exist at the beginning of the campaign, rather it is a formable country. It can be formed by any state in the Levantine culture group except ones with Turkish culture. Forming it will raise the government rank to empire, creating a cultural union of the Levantine group.
If the country is AI-controlled, it has to be not a former colonial nation.
If the country:
The Mamluks are perhaps the easiest to form Arabia with, as they have many of the required provinces and Hejaz as a vassal, adding more of the required land to the Mamluks after diplomatic annexation. Since the Mamlukian government (Sultanate) gets increased Vassal income and the Arabian minors are generally easy to force into a vassal it is recommend to do just that, don't waste admin points in Arabian peninsula, instead vassalize the Arabian minors peacefully or forcefully and diploannex them as soon as possible. The player's next step will be taking Baghdad from Qara Qoyunlu since it is necessary to form Arabia, it is also recommended to take the other culturally Mashriqi lands since the player will have a permanent claim on it as Arabia and they'll want to take it before the Ottomans do. The last part, but not the least, is the Ottomans, with this foe the player will need luck and diplomacy, it is recommended to ally Tunis and a powerful European nation that has likely rivaled the Ottomans like Poland or Austria in the early game and fortify the border with the Ottomans to prevent any unwanted Ottoman aggression. After forming the Arabia Empire it is recommended to expand into Ethiopia and the horn of Africa for the rich gold, slaves, and coffee and/or also Persian area after the inevitable Timurid rebel explosion and possibly into India, in the late game if the Ottomans have become weak it is also recommended picking them off.
The strategy for Haasa and Oman are relatively similar since they can ally each other, all that needs to be done is pick which country: (Yemen, Najd, or Shammar) to attack first. However, Hormuz is a minor annoyance since they tend to ally one or all of the aforementioned nations. Its recommended to simply vassalize them. After destroying the four smaller nations, offer Oman/Haasa vassalization, then diploannex them, if the player is big enough, they will likely accept. The biggest problem with forming Arabia is The Mamluks, the massive beige monster to the north, with the ability to field nearly three times as many troops as the player, and have one or two vassals ( Hejaz is especially dangerous) to back them up. The solution is the massive teal monster to their north, The Ottomans. Ally them, and begin fabricating the necessary claims. It is suggested to fabricate all necessary as the Ottomans may offer to sell the provinces. After that wait for Admin technology 10, and start building an Arabian Empire.
This is probably the hardest possible start, as it isn't enough to defend Granada against various ambitious crusaders (among them Castile/Spain of course), the player also needs to gain the faraway Arabian lands in the east to even try claiming the title of Caliph.
Having Andalusian primary culture means Granada would need to shift culture once they have worked through North Africa and gained the required territories. This is necessary as Bedouin should become majority culture once all of Arabia is conquered. If this isn't the case then Granada expanded the Andalusian culture too much, or using Common Sense expansion developed the Iberian territories too well. This can be fixed by either also developing the Arabian desert provinces, creating vassals and giving them Granada's Iberian lands until it is possible to change primary culture and reannexing them, and unstating Iberian provinces.
The Ottomans may seem an odd choice for the player at the start of the game. However, they can be a viable option to form Arabia. First, the player can retake cores from Candar, Dulkadir, Karaman, and Ramazan. Then, the player can take over Byzantium. Note, if the decision to move the capital to Constantinople is used, the Ottomans will become an empire and cannot culture shift to another Levantine culture due to their cultural union. Hopefully, this will only take the player 15-20 years and they can now attack either the Mamluks or Qara Qoyunlu. Based on who the player chooses first, they can then go for the other one. Once the player gets the required provinces from those two nations, they can attack the remainder of the nations of the Arabian Peninsula. If the Timurids have not collapsed then the player can gain one of the provinces they need, though they may have to go to war with them. Once the player has done that, its time to change their primary culture. There are two ways a player can do this, either convert the culture of Turkish provinces to their neighboring Syrian counterparts, or remove statehood from Turkish states in Anatolia to and make states of the Levantine culture of their choice. The first option has the benefit of not using admin points, but the second option doesn't take nearly as much time and won't be prevented by separatism. Once they've shifted your primary culture they will be able to form Arabia!
Depending on how Arabia was formed will dictate what problems it will face, if formed by an Arabian state, the next biggest problem after The Mamluks will be Qara Qoynlyu. Being a horde, they are unstable and technologically behind, however, they can field more troops and are incredibly aggressive. A solution is to use the Ottomans to help crush them. The next step is largely up to the player, Arabia can either expand east towards the Timurids and the Indian empires, west towards the North African trade nations, or south towards the Coptic African powers.